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Sociology Final 4

Ginny Garcia Final

Which of the following is an example of paralinguistic communication? Giving commands to a dog.
The social construction of reality teaches us that? There is no objective reality.
In the late 1800s Emile Durkheim believed that suicides rates in Europe were going up? Because of growing differences in warm, secure interpersonal relationships (social networks)
Conflict theory emphasizes? a person's or groups ability to exercise influence and control over others.
Conflict theory is derived from the work of Karl Marx
Everyday life is an important part of understanding the social world.the pioneering sociologists that developed micro-sociology and emphasized the importance of understanding the seemingly trival was Emile Durkheim
As a form of social interaction,the exchange of information and meaning through facial expressions, gestures, and movements of the body is called Nonverbal Communication
The social construction of reality is a principle that is central to Symbolic Interaction Theory
the rational choice proposition states that, when faced with different options, people all of the above
The enlightenment had an enormous influence of the development of modern sociology because: the spread of socialism
behavior between two or more people that is given meaning is referred to as: Social Interaction
Sociologists define the discipline of sociology as: a scientific way to think about society and its influence in humans.
Alexis de Tocqueville and Harrient Martineau were alike in that both were: Symbolic Interactionists
a xxxxx correlation has no direct casual connection between 2 variables even if there appears to be an association between them Spurious
Socially defined expectations of a person in a given social position are referred to as: Social roles
xxxxxx interprets each art of society in terms of how it contributes to the stability of a whole. Functionalism
Crime is considered to be inevitable in some form exists in all societies. Which of the following supports this statement? When people break laws in reinforces our conception of them as bad and of us as good.
sally knows that as a student she is expected to behave differently than as a church member,thus her behavior in the classroom should not be the same as in church. This is because student and church member are different roles. Are associated with a different collection of norms governing behavior.
Which of the following is an example of primary data? Notes made while observing a group behavior.
Sociologists that focus on studying small groups and patterns of face-to-face interaction between humans are called: Micro Sociologists
A primary focus of symbolic interactionists research is on the xxxxx we attach to xxxxx. subjective meanings, symbols
Social Exchange Theory prosists that we are more likely to engage in certain behaviors on the basis of rewards and punishments. Which of the following would be considered a reward? Smile
Statistical mistakes include: all of the above
If you add all the numbers in a series of data, then divide by the # of cases, you have calculated the: mean
A fundamental concept for organizing the sociological imagination is a distinction that Mills made between: troubles and issues
Which of the following is a practical belief of the study of sociology? all of the above are benefits of studying sociology
Which theoretical approach uses the analogy of the human body in assessing the role of each art of society in a continuation of society as a whole? functionalism
Which of the following movies was used in class as an example of process of involution? idiocracy
Which example was used in class to describe how social structures influence our behavior in different settings? Group Size
Which of the following would be considered a disadvantage to increase online interaction? A total lack of nonverbal communication, increased ability for misinterpretation
The organized pattern of social relationships and social institutions that together constitute society is referred to as: Social Structure
The unintended consequences of behavior are referred to as? latent functions
it can be argued that poverty serves a variety of functions in society/ Which of the following are positive functions? provides an accessible pool of cheap labor
What do language, crucifixes, and flags all have in common? they are symbols
Erving Goffman's analysis of interaction views the participants as actors in a stage of a drama in everyday life. This perspective is called the xxxxx model of interaction. dramaturgical
Sociology is one of the differences between the social sciences. Which of the following is an area of research that would particularly interest sociologists? the voting patterns in the presidential elections of 2004
Inequality is maintained and created by the dominant class. This statement most closely reflects: conflict theory
The sociological imagination helps us to see: the societal patterns that influence our lives.
Which sociological theorists first used the word sociology to describe the science that seeks to understand human behavior? Auguste Comte
The empirical approach to knowledge requires that conclusions be based on: careful and systematic observations
Which of the following is an example of microsociology? studying the social interactions in a coffee shop.
Inequality is inevitable and functional for society. This statement most closely reflects: functionalism
Social institutions serve a number of purposes. Which of the following is not one of them? Create deviant individuals
A xxxxx is any dimension along which individuals or groups vary. variable
The major institutions in society today are: all of the above
Which of the following is not a characteristic of millenials (also referred to as echo boomers)? exhibits less independence than previous generations
Use of personal space varies by culture. true
Dr. Garcia is very tired and her eye starts twitching during lecture. Several students recognize the twitch as a wink. This is a social interaction. true
According to a symbolic interactionist, would the following statement be true or false? If a tree falls in the woods and there is no one there to hear it, it does not make a sound. true
Children will take more candy in a room filled with mirrors than in a room without any mirrors. false
the concept of culture as used by sociologists include: Social guidelines for behavior
Human behavior and cultural beliefs: vary widely from culture to culture
The Nacirema, subjects of Miller's famous essay on rituals, engage different rituals including laceration of the face, women baking their heads, etc. What is Nacirema? American
Judging other cultures by the standards of one's own is know as: ethnocentrism
Smaller segments of a society with their own unique patterns of behavior are called: Subcultures
Children learn the ways of their elders, thereby perpetuating the values, norms and social patterns of their culture. This process is known as: Socialization
Jean Piaget's theory of child development is based on: the emergence of a sense of self, of self-awareness
Which of the following is an agent of socialization? all of the above
When family members, the mass media, and other institutions treat boys and girls differently as well as have varying expectations about their roles and expectations, this is called: differential socialization
Socialization provides an individual with: all of the above
At what point does socialization cease to occur? it doesn't; it's a lifelong process
Freud's psychoanalytical theory depicts the human psyche in 3 parts. Which of the following is one of them? the I
Consuming for the sake of showing one's wealth is called: Conspicuous consumption
In today's society we observe a fundamental difference in how we spend the most of our time. Today most of our time is spent in xxxxx groups; whereas, in traditional societies most people spent the majority of their time in xxxxx groups. secondary, primary
Sociologist George Reitzer renamed Veblet's concept of conspicuous consumption to fit our hyper materialistic society-hyper consumption. What would Reitzer call a mall? Cathedral of Consumption
The conviction that one is impervious to social influence results in what social psychologists Zimbardo calls the: not-me syndrome
Various types of suicide were identified in class. Thus, if a student commits suicide because they feel lost and without norms, which of the following types would describe such a situation? Anomic
What did we learn about people's willingness to obey authority in the Millgram study? People will follow an authority figure's orders regardless of the pain they might be inflicting on others.
Formal organizations: all of the above
The first systematic interpretation of modern organizations was developed by: Max Weber
The McDonaldization of society refers to: the process by which society takes on the characteristics of a fast food restaurant.
In the clip from 5 easy pieces, a man tries to order a side of toast with his breakfast but is told that there is no substitutions allowed in that establishment even tho they had bread and a toaster. example dysfunctions of bureaucracy? ritualism
The key emphasis of the sociological analysis of deviance is that: behavior varies according to social context.
People who reject both the existing values and the means of achieving them, but work to substitute new ones and reconstruct the social system would be what type, according to Menton? rebels
Crime carried out by more affluent members of society is called: White-collar crime
When we fail to conform to norms, this is always a form of xxxxx in sociological terms. deviance
If crime is defined as actions that violate the law, which of the following would always be a crime? none of the above
Differential association theory states that boys become delinquent because of: attachments to delinquent people
The basic question social control theorists ask is Why don't they do it?
Which of the following is not one of the 3 basic types of organizations as identified by Brun? emergent organizations
Which of the following were decisions were a result of groupthink? all of the above are examples of groupthink decisions
Jane is a member of the cool kids club and observes someone who is not a member, assumes they must be carrying a weapon because they are violent. Jane is engaging what? attribution error
According to Merton's straint theory, the majority of people in society are: conformists
The explanations of deviant behavior such as alcoholism, obesity and pedophilia that engage sickness or individual pathology is known as: the medicalization of deviance
If I agree to go streaking across campus, I have succumbed to: risky shift
Why are women more sensitive and compassionate than men, according to Nancy's theory of gender development (Object relations theory)? they are able to stay emotionally and physically closer to their mother.
Which of the following items (when worn by another person)has been shown to have an effect on peoples decisions to engage in behavior they otherwise wouldn't? b
Values are: abstract ideas
in class we watched a clip of the big bang theory, where sheldon rewards penny with chocolate when she behaves in an appropriate way. This clip was shown to illustrate how we will engage in the xxxxx of each other through the use of rewards & punishments. Socialization
Which of the following is a group according to the sociological definition of the term? A couple married less than 1 year
Some analysis conclude that we now live in a xxxxx, in which information about our lives is gathered by all kinds of organizations. For example, cell phones gps. surveillance society
When a professor is delivering a lecture and some students begin to whisper back and forth, the professor may cease the lecture and remain silent. The professor's behavior is an example of: negative sanction
Researches who are interested in studying why people were willing to commit heinous acts, such as the observed in Nazi Germany identified xxxxx and xxxxx as the reason. group pressure, obedience to authority
The argument that elite deviance goes largely unpunished and the criminal justice system is ordered to preserve the power of the ruling class is based on which theory? conflict
In the case of Abu Ghraib, some tried to make the argument that the actions committed by the soldiers were the result of a few bad apples. This is the position that a sociologists false
Marketing and advertising to children is acceptable in all cultures. false
Women are just as likely as men to engage in sadistic behavior in situations that involve and/or obedience to authority. true
A person's level of attractiveness has a direct impact on their success in society. true
Corporate crime rarely results in real harm or damages, in fact in accounts for much less of crime accounted for by street crime. false
Conflict perspective on inequality argues that: all of the above are true
Those who tend toward the xxxxx view of the stratification system are likely to argue that the system is fair and people are were they deserve to be. functionalist
Race is a status that is: assigned to people based exclusively on physically distinctive traits.
prejudice is frequently reflected in ethnocentrism. Generally ethnocentric persons fell that: their group is superior to all other groups
The process by which a minority becomes socially, economically, and culturally absorbed within the dominant culture is called: assimilation
The minority group that has suffered a population decline (due to conquest and disease) considered by some to be the most drastic and steepest of any people in the history of the entire world is: native Americans
Affirmative Actions is considered which of the following types of policies? assimilation
Which of the following statements is true about sex and gender? all of the above
An ethnic minority is distinguished by which of the following characteristics? Share all of the above
What is a pan-ethnicity? an ethnic category that refers to many groups.
Cultural pluralism refers to which of the following models? Salad bowl
brain drain refers to which of the following phenomena? the loss of highly skilled immigrants who come to the US to earn more.
In class we discussed that the sex ration has an important impact on gender equality. Which of the concepts was not discussed in class? In the Ukraine, males are expected to care for the children in the family.
Gender expectation influence how boys and girls are treated from xxxxx on. the moment of birth
Gordon's Allport's theory of contact (Contact theory) proposes that contact between groups will decrease prejudice: if the contact occurs between groups of equal status and is sustained.
A census: is a population count
The bubonic plague, or black death may have killed about 40% of the population in Europe and Asia
According to Thomas Malthus, human populations increase xxxxx while their food supply increases xxxxx. exponentially, arithmetically
According to Malthus which is not considered a xx for population growth? contraception
A stratification system in which certain people are owned as property slavery
Social mobility refers to: the movement between individuals and groups between classes.
The 2002 poverty line for a family of 4 in the United States was absolute, relative
In her classic study of gender roles in the New Guinea tribes Sex and... Margeret Mead found: gender roles were very different from tribe to tribe
Although in the past 30 years the pay gap between men and women has xxxxx on average xxxxx. narrowed, men continue to make more than women
Preconceived opinions or attitudes held by memebrs of 1 group towards another is defined as: Prejudice
Which of the following immigrant groups was held to prejudice and discrimination by those who were already established in the US? all of the above
Which ethnic group was forcibly removed to relocation camps during WWII? Japanese Americans
Tim is a construction worker who is unemployed. He blames the recent influx of Mexican Immigrants on his inability to get a new job. This is an example of: scapegoating
Demography is: the study of population and the 3 major processes, fertility, mortality, and migration.
the avg pay among the working class has xxxxx, while the avg pay among CEO's has xxxxx. increased by a little, increased tremendously
According to US census clasifications, which of the following groups has never experienced a change in the way they were referred to? white
Women are bad drivers, men are stubborn, italian's are loud. Each of these statements were used in class as examples of stereotypes
In class we discussed how a certain agent of socialization has been shown to have significant effects on the long-term preferences of boys and girls. Identify that agent of gender socialization. childhood play and games
The feminist movement was based on 3 major ideas. Which of the following is not one of them? All women should join the labor force
Several factor led to the development of love as a requirement for marriage in modern societies. These include: all of the above
When sociologists study the existence of structured inequalities in a society, they refer to that structure as: social stratification
When women are steered into poorly paid jobs with few prospects of career advancement xxxxx occurs. gender typing
An organization with a promotion barrier that prevents a woman's upward mobility is said to have: a glass ceiling
In schools, boys and girls are treated unequally: all of the above
According to the human capital theory, women earn less than men on avg because: all of the above
What do sociologists mean when the refer to the second shift of working women? the burden of housework that awaits a women when she returns from work, could be credited to 13.1 trillion.
The 1st large wave of immigrants to the US, from the time of independence to 1880's was mostly from: Britain and NW Europe
the majority of immigrant in the US in the 1900's were from xxxxx in the 1990's the majority were from xxxxx. Europe, Latin America and Asia
Created by: despin5