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Chem 2 ch 23

chapter 23

radioactivity when a nucleus is unstable and emits particles and/or electromagnetic radiation spontaneously
all elements with an atomic number greater than what are radioactive? 83
nuclear transmutation results from the bombardment of nuclei by neutrons, protons, and other nuclei
Atomic number (Z)- number of protons in nucleus
Mass Number (A)- number of protons + number of neutrons
Proton 1H 1
neutron 1n 0
electron 0β -1
positron oβ +1
α particle 4He 2
isotopes have the same number of protons but different mass number
When balancing nuclear equations what must you remember? 1. Conserve the mass number (A) 2. Conserve the atomic number (Z)
isobars are different types of atoms (nuclides)of different chemical elements that have the same number of nucleons
Coluomb's law like charges repel and unlike charges attract
electron capture the capture of an electron by the nucleus
Extra stable neutrons and protons are: 2,8,20,50,82,126
Noble gasses are extra stable e-= 2,10,18,36,54,86
Nuclei with even number of protons and neutrons are more stable than? those with odd numbers of neutron and protons
Nuclear binding energy (BE) is the binding energy required to break up a nucleus into its component protons and neutrons
E=mc2 C=3.00 EE8 m/s E=energy m = mass
binding energy per nucleon = binding energy/number of nucleons
nucleons general term for protons and neutrons in the nucleus
Proton = 1.007825
neutron = 1.008665
Mass defect- the difference between the mass of an atom and the sum of the masses of its protons, neutrons, and electrons
Radioactivity the spontaneous emission by unstable nuclei of particles or electromagnetic radiations, or both
main types of radiation alpha particles (He2+), beta particles, gamma rays, positron emission, and electron capture.
Radioactive decay series a sequence of nuclear reactions that ultimately result in the formation of a stable isotope
Parent the beginning radioactive isotope
Daughter the product of the parent isotope
All radioactive decay follow what? 1st order kinetics
t1/2= o.693/lambda
lambda= 1st order rate constant
N= number of radioactive nuclei
t= time
ln(Nt/N0)= -lambda x t
nuclear transmutation involves decay and the process of turning one element into another element by colliding two particles
trans-uranium elements elements with atomic numbers greater then 92.
nuclear fission the process in which a heavy nucleus divides to form a smaller nuclei of intermediate mass and one or more neutrons
sub critical insufficient size to sustain a chain reaction
moderators substances that can reduce the kinetic energy of neutrons. They must be non-toxic fluid
breeder reactor uses uranium fuel and it produces more fissionable materials than it uses
doubling-time the time it takes a breeder reactor to produce enough materials to refuel the original reactor or another reactor
Nuclear chain reactions is a self-sustaining sequence of nuclear fission reactions
critical mass the minimum mass of fissionable material required to generate a self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction
nuclear fusion the combining of two small nuclei into larger ones
thermonuclear reactions another name for fusion reactions because they take place at extremely high temperatures
plasma a gaseous mixture of positive ions and electrons
tracers isotopes, especially radioactive isotopes that are used to trace the path of atoms of an element in a chemical or biological process
radicals molecular fragments having one or more unpaired electrons, they usually are short-lived and highly reactive
somatic or genetic radiation radiation damage to living systems
d= 2H 1
d= 2H 1
half life of carbon-14 is 5730 years
Created by: majormayhem