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Microbio Lab #59

Lab #59 - Microbial Antagonism

Why might gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria respond differently to antagonism? Gram-negative bacteria often do not allow penetration of antibiotics, such as penicillin, through the outer membrane.
What role does microbial antagonism play in nature? Microbial antagonism provides a competitive advantage for the antagonistic compound producer.
Describe the importance of microbial antagonism for controlling food spoilage: Foods that are produced by microbial fermentation are protected from spoilage by the organic acids produced. The acidic pH prevents growth of other microbes.
Describe the importance of microbial antagonism for treating infections: Bacterial infections are often treated with antibiotic compounds that are isolated from antagonistic microbes.
Why do antagonistic substances not harm the producer? Some microbes produce antibiotics against a different class of microbes, therefore, the antibiotic attacks the proper target but does not affect the homologous host enzyme.
Some microbes also have developed resistance mechanisms to protect themselves against their own ___ compounds. Antibiotic.
Microbial ____ or ____, occurs when one population produces a substance or compound that is toxic or inhibitory to other organisms in the environment. Antagonism or amensalism.
The organisms that produce the ____ substance are usually unaffected by the substance, and as a result, they may gain a competitive advantage in microenvironments over others that are also present. Inhibitory.
Inhibitory substances may be a metabolic end product such as an ___ ___ that prevents the growth of other bacteria or it may be an antibiotic that kills other organisms by specifically __ some crucial metabolic rxn or function in the affected population. Organic acid. Inhibiting.
How do we take advantage of microbial antagonism? In certain kinds of food preservation.
Foods produced by fermentation in which organic acids such as ___, ___, or ___ acids are end products (ex. cheese and vinegar) are not usually subject to microbial spoilage because: Acetic, lactic, propionic acids. Because the acidic pH prevents the growth of other microbes.
Some soil bacteria may gain a selective advantage in micro-environments because they produce ____ that discourage competition by others for available soil nutrients. Antibiotics.
Which organisms are antagonists? Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Penicillium notatum.
Created by: michellevu