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DOE RCT Core Exam

DOE Core exam study guide

SI Prefixes M^6,k^3,u^-6,p^-12
Work force through distance
Force change of speed or direction
Energy ability to do work
Kinetic energy energy of motion
Potential energy energy of position
Thermal energy heat energy
Chemical energy new substances are produced
Atomic # (z) protons
Atomic Mass # (A) protons and neutrons
Atomic Mass AMU
Atomic Weight % abundance
Periods rows
Groups columns
Valence Shell ground state atom
Valence Electrons electrons in a valence shell
Nucleon neutrons and protons
Nuclide constitution of the nucleus
Isotope same # protons, different # of neutrons
Mass & energy are interchangeable
Pair annihilation 2 particles collide make energy
Mass defect sum of masses of p+n+e minus mass of the atom
Binding Energy binds the nucleus
BE per nucleon BE / # nucleons
Fission splitting
Critical E for fission to the point of separation
Criticality new = old
Fusion joins
Terrestrial radiation 28 mrem
Cosmic radiation 27 mrem
Internal emitters 39 mrem
Inhaled 200 mrem
Nuclear fallout <1 mrem
Medical exposure 53 mrem
Consumer products 10 mrem
Nuclear facilities <1 mrem
Nuclear stability arrangement of n & p
Nuclear force independent of charge
Increase in Z# p/n ratio increase
Radioactivity spontaneously emit radiation
Radioactive decay spontaneously disintegrates
Alpha 2 p, 2 n
Beta -1 charge, 5.49E-4 AMU
Gamma excited nuclei, use lead
Alpha Decay Z-2
Beta Decay Z+1
Positron Decay Z-1, +beta
2 aspects of decay Modes, Rate
Fission products too big a n/p ratio
Radioactive series Uranium, Thorium, Actinium, Neptunium
Curie dps of radium
Becquerel 1 dps-60dpm
Roentgen exposure
Rad absorbed dose 100ergs/g
Gray 1J/kg - 100 Rad
H=DQ H=rem or sievert, D=Rad or gray,Q=quality factor
Dose equivalent absorbed dose * quality factor
Quality factors Rays=1, slow=3, fast=10, alpha=20
Ionization removal of an electron of a neutral atom
Excitation moves to a higher energy state
Bremsstrahlung energy loss as it reacts with matter
Specific ionization ion pairs/path length
Stopping power removes energy
Alpha transfer ionization, excitation
Beta transfer Ionization, excitation, Bremsstrahlung
Gamma interaction Photoelectric effect, Compton scattering, pair production
Photoelectric effect all or nothing energy loss
Compton scattering only part of the energy is transferred
Pair production disappears
4 catagories of neutrons thermal (~.025eV), intermediate (0.5eV), fast (100KeV), relativistic (>20MeV)
3 results of neutron capture gamma, charged particles, fission
Elastic scattering strikes and transfers SOME of its energy
Inelastic scattering strikes, transfers most of the energy
Cell Membrane regulates concentrations, 3-5k rads to rupture
Cytoplasm jelly stuff, negligible
Mitochondria supplies energy, few k rad to disrupt
Lysosomes digestive enzymes, 500-1k rads to rupture
Nucleus directs cell activity, most sensitive
Chromosomes supercoils of DNA
Bergonie and Tribondeau law radiosensitivity is directly proportional to its reproductive capability
Water free radical and ion
secondary hydrogen peroxide
Stochastic no threshold, cancer
Non-stochastic threshold, cataracts, infertility
LD 50/30 50% of exposed die within 30 days
Chronic radiation low dose, long time, cancer
Hematopoietic system 200-1000 rad
GI tract 1-5k rad, weight loss
Central NS >5k rad, death
4 stages of rad poisoning prodromal, latent illness, recovery or death
Fetal doses 25 rad=development changes, 400-600 rad=death of fetus
Somatic not passed on
Heritable passed on
Purpose of the DOE rad manual don't get dose unless its beneficial
Shall Mandatory
Should follow or find alternate
Pre-job ALARA risk analysis
Pre-job brief procedures, qualifications, emergencies
Post-job ALARA unusual exposure events investigated
Post-job briefing critique work performance
Minimizing personal exposure time, distance shielding, amount
6CEN C=Source activity, E=(gamma1 X %)+(gamma 2 X%), N=# fo gamma/disintegrations
Source reduction decay, decon, reduce, discharge, move
Line source equation I1*d^2=I2*d^2
Point source equation I1*d1=I2*d2
HLV I (shielded)=I(unshielded X (1/2)^n
ALI single radionuclide
DAC divide ALI by the volume
Biological 1/2 life independent of the physical 1/2 life
Blocking agent saturates with a stable element
Diluting agent reduces the bodies incorporation of radioactive atoms
Mobilizing agent increases the natural turnover process
Chelating agent insoluble to soluble
Current amp, electrons past a point in a circuit
Voltage volts, potential difference
Resistance ohms, opposes flow
Ionization detectors ion pairs, (GM tubes)
Excitation detectors excites the atom (TLDs)
Chemical detectors causes a chemical change (film badges)
Gas amplication curve RIPLGC
Ion chamber detectors before they can recombine
Proportional detectors single very large pulse
Resolving time initial pulse to next pulse measured
Dead time initial pulse to next pulse produced
Recovery time full size pulse to next full sized pulse
Gas filled detector discrimination shielding, gas specific, pulse height
Scintillation detector excitation, emits light when excited
Photomultiplier detect scintillation
Photocathode converts lightphotons to electrons
Dynode assembly amplify the signal
Anode collect the electron and generate a pulse
Voltage divider network splits the high voltage into potentials
Shell seals the tube
Boron activation slow neutron detection, strike Boron-10, alpha emitted
Fission chambers slow neutron detection, U-235
Activation Foils slow neutron detection, absorb neutrons of a specific energy
Proton recoil fast neutron detection, elastic scattering with Hydrogen atoms
Semiconductor electrons moves from the valance to conduction leaving holes (electron-hole pairs)
GeLi system High resolution, short response time, gamma only, keep cool
HPGe system portable, room temperature, expensive
Dose equivalent in rem rads*Q
Minimize ingestion by not smoking
Fission products contain too many neutrons
Which neutron has the least amount of K.E.? thermal
The effective 1/2 life is <,>,= to the radioactive 1/2 life? <
EES English system
Q relates____to ____? absorbed dose to dose equivalent
Created by: hotbmxmomma
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