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Chapter 4-glossary

Glossary Chapter 4

Acid a substance that produces H+ ions (protons) when it is dissolved in water; a proton donor
aqueous solution a solution in which water is the dissolving medium or solvent
Base a proton acceptor
complete ionic equation an equation that shows all substances that are strong electrolytes as ions
Dilution the process of adding solvent to lower the concentration of solute in a solution
electrical conductivity the ability to conduct an electrical current
Endpoint the point in a titration at which the indicator changes color
formula equation an equation representing a reaction in solution showing the reactants and products in undissociated form
Hydration the interaction between solute particles and water molecules
Indicator a chemical that changes color and is used to mark the end point of a titration
Molarity moles of solute per volume of solution in liters
net ionic equation an equation for a reaction in solution
neutralization reaction an acid–base reaction
Nonelectrolyte a substance that
Oxidation an increase in oxidation state (a loss of electrons)
oxidation state a concept that provides a way to keep track of electrons in oxidation–reduction reactions according to certain rules
oxidation–reduction (redox) reaction a reaction in which one or more electrons are transferred
oxidizing agent (electron acceptor) a reactant that accepts electrons from another reactant
polar molecule a molecule that has a permanent dipole moment -- that is
Precipitate the solid that forms in a precipitation reaction
precipitation reaction a reaction in which an insoluble substance forms and separates from the solution
reducing agent (electron donor) a reactant that donates electrons to another substance to reduce the oxidation state of one of its atoms
Reduction a decrease in oxidation state (a gain of electrons)
Solubility the amount of a substance that dissolves in a given volume of solvent at a given temperature
Solute a substance dissolved in a liquid to form a solution
Solvent the dissolving medium in a solution
spectator ions ions present in solution that do not participate directly in a reaction
standard solution a solution whose concentration is accurately known
stoichiometric (equivalence) point the point in a titration when enough titrant has been added to react exactly with the substance in solution being titrated
strong acid an acid that completely dissociates to produce an H+ ion and the conjugate base
strong base soluble ionic compounds containing the hydroxide ion (OH-) that
strong electrolyte a material that
Titration delivery of a measured volume of a solution of known concentration into a solution containing a substance being analyzed
volumetric analysis a technique for determining the amount of a certain substance by doing a titration
weak acid an acid that dissociates (ionizes) only to a slight extent in aqueous solutions
weak base a base that reacts with water to produce hydroxide ions to only a slight extent in aqueous solution
weak electrolyte a material that
Created by: studentdevin