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Chem 2 ch19

chapter 19

Electrochemistry the area of chemistry that deals with the interconversion of electrical energy and chemical energy
Elecrochemistry involves: 1. using electricity to maker chemical reactions and 2. using chemical reactions to produce electricity
electrochemical processes are? oxidation- reduction reactions in which energy released by a spontaneous reactions is converted to electricity and electrical energy is used to cause a non spontaneous reaction to occur
oxidation is a half reaction in which you lose e-
reduction is a half reaction in which you gain e-
oxidation numbers the charge an atom would have in a molecule (or in an ionic compound) if electrons were completely transferred
Free elements in an uncombined state have an oxidation number of? zero
in mono-atomic ions the oxidation number is? equal to the charge on the ion
The oxidation number of oxygen is usually? -2. In H2O2 and O2(2-) it -1.
the oxidation number of hydrogen is +1, except when it is bonded to metals in binary compounds, it is -1.
The oxidation number of group 1A metals is: +1
The oxidation number of group IIA metals is: +2
Fluorine's oxidation number is always: -1
The sum of the oxidation numbers of all the atoms in a molecule is equal to? the charge on the molecule or atom.
Anode the electrode at which oxidation occurs, it positive
Cathode the electrode at which reduction occurs, it negative
Half-cell reactions redox reactions
voltometer measures the difference in electrical potential between the anode and cathode
Galvanic Cells an apparatus for generating electricity through the use of a spontaneous reaction
What does the subscript "o" denote? Standard state condition
Cell voltage the difference in electrical potential between the anode and the cathode
Double lines denote? a salt bridge
Standard reduction potential (E0)- is the voltage associated with a reduction reaction at an electrode when all solutes are 1M and all gases are at 1 atm
Standard emf (E0Cell) E0cell= E0cathode- E0anode
The more positive E0 the greater the tendency for the substance to be reduced
are half cell reactions reversible? yes
the sign of E0 changes when? the reaction is reversed
Changing the stoichiometric coefficients of a half-cell reaction does what? It does not change the value of E0
Energy (joules)= change(coulomb) x voltage(volts)
Faraday constant (F)= the charge of one mole of electrons
ΔG is negative K>1 E0cell= positive, favors the formation of products
ΔG is positive K<1 E0cell= negative, favors the formation of reactants
Concentration cell- a galvanic cell from two half-cells composed of the same material but differing in ion concentrations
Membrane potential- is the electrical potential that exists across the membrane of various kinds of cells including muscle and nerve cells
Nerst equations E=-(0.0257V/n) lnQ
Battery- a galvanic cell, or series of combined galvanic cells, that can be used as a source of direct electrical current at a constant voltage. Are self contained and require no salt bridge.
Leclanche' cell the most common battery, with no fluid component
Mercury Battery used in medicine, provides consistent voltage
Lead storage battery used in automobiles, consists of 6 identical cells joined in a series, and is rechargeable
Solid state Lithium battery Rechargeable, long-lasting, very light. It is used in cell phones, cameras, and laptops.
Fuel Cell- is an electrochemical cell that requires a continuous supply of reactants to keep functioning.
Corrosion- the deterioration of metals bu an electrochemical process
Passivation- process by which the surface of iron metal is made inactive by treating it with a strong oxidizing agent to for a thin oxide layer
Cathodic protection- process in which a metal that is to be protected from erosion is made the cathode in that amounts to a galvanic cell
electrolytic cell- an apparatus for carrying out electrolysis
Electrolysis- the process on which electrical energy is used top cause a non-spontaneous chemical reaction to occur
overvoltage- the difference between the electrode potential and the actual voltage required to cause electrolysis
Created by: majormayhem