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Bonding & Structure

Unit 4

exothermic more energy is given out than needs to be put in it will be released as heat
endothermic extra heat is needed to be added because more energy is required to break the reactant bonds than is given out when the products are formed
intramolecular forces bonds that are present between atoms within a molecule
electron affinity energy change when an electron is added to the neutral specie to form a negative ion
lattice enthalpy measure of the strength of bonds in that ionic compound
polyatomic ions positive or negative ions that are formed when more than one element is joined to another
single covalent bond one pair of electrons is shared between two atoms
Lewis Structure diagram that show all the pairs of outer electrons in a molecule
lone pair non-bonded pair
double covalent bond each atom shares two electrons with the other
triple covalent bond three shared pairs of electrons between the two atoms
coordinate (or dative) covalent bond both electrons from a shared pair originate from the same atom, formed when a non-bonding pair of electrons on one of the atoms donates its electrons to an atom or ion that is deficient in electrons
delocalized when ion contains an extra proton with the positive charge spread out over the whole ion
resonance hybrids three possible extreme structures
dipole moment molecule placed between 2 electrically charged plates -end will be attracted to the positive plate and +end will be attracted to negative plate
valence shell electron pair repulsion because of the repulsion between pairs of electrons around the central atom in the molecule or ion, the pairs of electrons are arranged so they are as far away from each other as possible
stereochemistry way in which atoms are orientated in space
van der Waal's forces attractive or repulsive force between molecules other than those due to covalent bonds or to the electrostatic interaction of ions with each other or neutral molecules
dipole pair of equal and opposite electric charges or magnetic poles separated by a small distance
hydrogen bonding attractive interaction of a hydrogen atom with electronegative atom
allotropy can exist in more than one physical form or allotrope
fullerenes molecules composed entirely of carbon, in the form of a hollow sphere, ellipsoid, or tube
nanotubes long tubes that can be closed or open at one end, extremely small diameter
delocalized atoms of metals bond together in solid state one or more valence electrons becomes detached from each atom electrons are free to move in the metallic structure
malleable metal can be beaten into shape without breaking
ductile metal can be drawn into a wire
phlogiston hypothetical substance once believed to be present in all combustible materials to be released during burning
molecular orbital theory based on quantum mechanics and looks at the combination of atomic orbitals to form molecular orbitals and hybrid orbitals
bonding molecular orbital molecular orbital with a lower energy that electrons tend to fill first because of lower energy
anti-bonding orbital molecular orbital with higher energy than either of 2 atomic orbitals that combined destructively to decrease the electron density
sigma molecular orbital 2 s orbitals combine and resulting bonding molecular orbital has a single shape with no plane of zero electron density through it
sigma bond 2 s orbitals, s and p, or 2 p orbitals bonded between atoms
pi molecular orbital direct sharing of electron between a atoms' p orbitals
pi bond covalent chemical bonds when 2 lobes of one involved electron orbital overlap 2 lobes of the other involved electron orbital
paramagnetism relating to or being a substance in which an induced magnetic field is parallel and proportional to the intensity of the magnetizing field
bond order number of chemical bonds between a pair of atoms
hybridization act of mixing different species or varieties of animals or plants and thus to produce hybrids
electrophiles reactants that are attracted to electrons
delocalization enthalpy/resonance energy 150 KJ/mol characteristic energy at which the amplitude of a resonance phenomenon
Created by: IBChem