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CHM 140

Ch 25

anticodon- 3 nucleic acid sequents on t-RNA which is specific for each amino acids to be added to the protein chain in protein synthesis
codon- 3 nucleic acid sequence on m-RNA which codes fro each amino acid.
gene- DNA segment that codes for 1 protein
exon- section of DNA that, when transcribed, codes for a protein or RNA
replication- reproduction of DNA molecule into 2 new DNA molecules
A nucleotide consists of what 3 parts? base, monosaccharide, phosphate
Name the 3 nucleotides that are derviative of pyrimidine. cytidine, uridine, thymidine
Name the 2 nucelotides that are derivatives of purine. Adenosine, Guanosine
In what nucleotide form is energy stored? ATP adenosine 5’-triphosphate
What is the secondary structure of DNA? Double helix: a type of 2° structure of DNA molecules in which two antiparallel polynucleotide strands are coiled in a right-handed manner about the same axis
What are the 3 differences between DNA and RNA? DNA bases are A, G, C, and T; the RNA bases are A, G, C, and U pairs in DNA G-C, A-T in RNA G-C, A-U sugar in DNA is 2-deoxy-D-ribose; in RNA it is D-ribose 3)DNA double stranded; RNA single-stranded
What are the 3 main types of RNA? What is the function of each? 1)m-RNA:directs amino acid sequence of proteins 2)t-RNA:transports amion acids to the site of protein synthesis 3)r-RNA:combines with proteins to form ribosomes
translation- Protein synthesis
Describe steps 1-4 in protein synthesis. 1. mRNA transcribed from DNA strand in nucleus goes ribsome, attaches 30S unit at P & A sites 2. Methionyl-tRNA binds to P site through a codon-anticodon interaction. 3.50S ribosomal unit attaches 30S unit. 4. Anticodon of 2nd tRNA binds w/next codon mRNA
Describe steps 5-8 in protein synthesis. 5. Amino acid in P site joined to amino acid on A site via peptide bond. 6. 1st tRNA leaves ribosome. 7. Ribosome moves along mRNA chain one codon unit. 8. Steps 4 through 6 are repeated until protein is synthesized.
Describe structure of nucleosome core of 8 histone molecules which the DNA helix is wrapped around
Created by: fallsummerspring