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CHM 140

CH 24

Why are vitamins needed in the body? components of coenzymes and enzyme
What chemicals makes up vitamins B1, B2, B3, and B5? B1 (Thiamine) B2 (Riboflavin) B3 (Nicotinic acid) B5 (Pantothenic acid)
What is the use of the B vitamins in the body in terms of metabolism? part of the enzymes that catalyze the breakdown of proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids
What are the 2 main function of Vitamin C? Ascorbic Acid function: acts as an electron donor for eight different enzymes and antioxidant
What is the main function of Vitamin D? Helps bone grow: Regulates Calcium and phosphorus in the blood
What are the 3 main types of molecules used for communication? Receptors, Chemical messengers, Secondary messengers
agonist- molecule that competes with a natural messenger for a receptor site; it binds to the receptor site and elicits the same response as the natural messenger
antagonist- molecule that blocks a natural receptor and prevents its stimulation
androgen- male sex hormones
What is the distinction between a neurotransmitter and a hormone? neurotransmitter- acts over a short distance (across a synapse) hormone-acts over a long distance (from the secretory organ, through the blood, to its site of action)
What are the 5 classes of chemical messengers? 1. cholinergic messengers-uses acetylcholine 2. amino acid messengers 3. adrenergic messengers 4. peptidergic messengers 5. steroid messengers
Describe how acetylcholine catalyzes a nerve transmission. ACh triggers a conformation change in the acetylcholine receptor protein; opens an ion channel. Na+ ions pass into it while K+ ions pass out. Translated into a nerve signal
Where in the body does acetylcholine exert it main effect? ACh receptor protein
Name 4 inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitters. Glycine, Taurine, B-alanine, y-butyric acid
In what gland is epinephrine and norepinephrine synthesized? adrenal medulla
What two messengers in the body have functions that mainly have to do with the mood,behavior, and emotional makeup of a person? Seratonin and Dopamine
What neurotransmitter is released as an immune response to foreign antigens and may produce adverse effects in the bronchial cavity? Histamine
enkephalins- (brain) they bind to specific pain receptors and seem to control pain perception
corticotropin- (pituitary) Stimulates adrenal cortex to produce and secrete adrenocortical hormones (eg, mineralcorticoids, glucocorticoids).
What is the function of glucagon in the body? causes liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose and releases into the bloodstream opposite of insulin in the pancras
Created by: fallsummerspring