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Chemistry Exam

Chapters 7,8,9

Examples of Electromagnetic Radiation include? -Examples: visible light, microwave ovens, cell phone signals, Xrays, radiant heat from a fireplace, AM/FM radio, gamma ray bursts. -All travel in waves and at the speed of light
What is an electric field? Its the region where electrically charge particles feel a force.
What is a magnetic field? Its the region where magnetic particles feel a force.
The order of waves from smallest wave length to largest? Gamma Rays, X-rays, Ultraviolet, Visible light, Infared, Microwaves, Radio Waves. -This is also the order from highest frequency to lowest frequency.
Know about the interfernce of waves. Constructive and destructive
Diffraction of waves and particles.(Barrier with slit) Waves-The waves go through the slit and spread out on the other side Particles- The particles that make it throught the slit extend in the same direction as they entered. (straight forwards) The other particles stop at the wall.
How does two slit interferene work? The light source travels diff lengths. The waves that create a distructive inference create dark spots on the background and the waves that travel with constructive interference create light spots. This results in a pattern of dark and ligh spots.
Solution found by Max Planck (1900) in “an act of desperation.” – Energy could only be emitted in discrete packets or quanta. E=nhv
Photoelectric Effect Solution: Albert Einstein. Problems- Treshold Frequency:below certain freqency-no electrons emitted. No lag time-If high freqency enough electrons come off immediatly. E=hv (h=6.626 x 10^-34) E=hc/wavelength -Light energy comes in packets: Photon or Quantum of light.
What is the emmisson spectrum? When that emitted light is passed through a prism, a pattern of particular wavelengths of light is seen that is unique to that type of atom or molecule. The pattern is called an emission spectrum.
Bohr Model of the Atom – Try to explain emission spectra? The electron in a hydrogen atom moves around the nucleus only in certain allowed circular orbits. The energy levels of the electron are quantized.
What did Bohr get right? – The model gets the energy levels correct in that the experimental spectrum can be reproduced. E = −2.178 ×10−18
What did Bohr get wrong? 1. Only worked for the Hydrogen atom 2. Electons do not move in circular orbits around the nucleus.
Who is Louis de Broglie (1892–1987)? -de Broglie proposed that particles could have a wavelike character. -de Broglie predicted that the wavelength of a particle is inversely proportional to its momentum(mass x velocity).
Uncertainty Principle? – x = position, Δx = uncertainty in position – v = velocity, Δv = uncertainty in velocity – m = mass Δx . mΔv >(or equal) h/4pie
_______________ has properties of both waves AND particles. Electromagnetic Radiation
Matter has properties of both waves AND particles too... -The smaller the object, the more wave-like properties it exhibits. – For objects we perceive the wave properties are so small that we don’t/can’t notice them.
c= 3.00x10^8 m/s
What is frequency? The number of crests that pass a stationary point in one second =s^-1
If you increase wavelength, you ____ frequency. Decrease
Equation to remember: c=wavelength x frequency
Quantum Mechanics is? Indeterminite=we cant predict future outcomes exactly. But we can predict possibilities.
Ephoton= |ΔE|
What does n,l,ml mean? n- How large the orbital is. What is the energy l- Shape of the orbital (0-s shape, 1-p shape, 2-d shape,3-f shape) l can be anything from 0 to n=1 ml-the orientation in space. If l=2, ml=-2,-1,0,1,2
What is absorption? When electron absorbs a photon. Electron increases in energy. Goes from lower n to higher n.
What is emission? Electron gives off a photon. Electron decreases in energy. Goes from a high n to a low n.
Small wavelength, high frequency, means____ energy. high
When the wavlength of a photon increases, the frequency_____. decreases
Electrons exibit properties of? waves and particles
If we shoot one electron at a time: -We still see an interference pattern! -A single electron will interfere with itself!
What is the major difference between H atoms & Polyelectron atoms? H: Energy of orbital depends only on n Poly: Energy depends on n
What is electron spin? Intransic angular momentum of an electron. All electrons have the same amount of magnitude-1/2. The direction is quantized. Electrons can be spin up(Ms= +1/2) or spin down(Ms= -1/2)
Vanlence Electons? The outermost electrons. These are involved in bonding.
Core Electrons? Inter most electrons. Not involved in bonding.
How does the Noble Gas Configuration work? Replace writing core electrons with symbol for nearest noble gas.
Order of configuations 1s,2s,2p,3s,3p,4s,3d,4p,5s,4d,5p, ect
For s and p block valence electons- Count the s and p's it takes up
For d and f block valence electons- Count highest s and the d/f blocks it takes up
Electron Shielding? Electrons repel against each other.
Ionization Energy- First I.E- x + energy--> x+ + e- Second I.E- x+ + energy--> x2+ +e-
What is the I.E trend? Higher and farthest to right = high I.E
What is the electron affinity trend? Higher and farthest right= high E.A (more negative)
What is the shielding trend? Increases as we go down and to the right
What is the atomic radius trend? Increases as we go up and to the left
What are the trends in Ionic Raduis? -Anions-bigger than nuetral atom -Cations-smaller than nuetral atom
What is the trend to size? Farther down and to the left the bigger
What is covanent bonding? The sharing of electrons, nonmetal & nonmetal (equal sharing) Usually between same elements.
What is ionic bonding? The transfer of electrons, nonmetal & metal (completely transfer)
Metals tend to ___ electrons to achieve Noble Gas config. Nonmetals tend to ____ electons to acheive Noble Gas config. lose, gain
What is polar covalent bonds? Unequal sharing. Usually between different nonmetals
What is the elecronegativity trend? Increases up and to the right
Created by: vpickens