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AS Chem Glossary

Key words for AQA AS Chemistry

What does Acid rain consist of? Quantities of Carbonic, Nitric and Sulfuric Acids.
Define 'Atomic Number' The number of Protons in the nucleus of an Atom
What is the avagadro's constant? 6.022 x 10 23rd particles mol -1
Describe the Catalytic Cracking proccess. Occurs when the energy required for bond breaking in Hydrocarbons is provided by heat, in the presence of a catalyst.
Describe the Thermal Cracking process. Occurs when the energy required for bond breaking in hydrocarbons is provided by heat.
What are Chain Isomers? Structural Isomers which occur when there are two or more ways of arranging the carbon skeleton of a molecule.
What is the formula for working out concentration? Number of moles of solute/volume of solution in dm3 = with units mol dm-3
What is a co-ordinate bond? A covalent bond formed when the pair of electrons originate from one atom.
Describe a covalent bond. A bond which involes a shared pair of electrons between two atoms.
What is the Cracking proccess? Occurs when large Alkanes are broken into smaller molecules.
What is Electronegativity? The power of an atom to attract the shared electrons in a covalent bond.
What is the Empirical formula? The SIMPLEST ratio of atoms of each element in a compound.
What is Enthalpy change? The amount of heat energy released or absorbed when a chemical or physical change occurs at constant pressure.
What is 'Enthalpy of fusion'? The enthalpy required to change one mole of a solid into a liquid. X(s) -> X(l)
What is Enthalpy of vaporisation? The enthalpy required to change one mole of a liquid into a gas. X(l) -> X(g)
Define the first ionisation energy. The enthalpy change for the removal of one mole of electrons from one mole of atoms of an element in the gas phase. X(g)->X+(g) +e-
What is a functional group? An atom or group of atoms which, when present in different molecules, causes them to have similar chemical properties.
What are functional group isomers? Structural isomers which contain different functional groups.
Describe a Giant Ionic lattice/Ionic crystal. A laticem of positive and negative ions bound together by electrostatic attractions.
Describe a Giant metallic lattice/Metallic crystal. A lattice of metal ions surrounded by delocalised electrons.
What are greenhouse gases? Gases in the atmosphere which absorb infra-red radiation (e.g water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane and ozone).
What are the Homologous series? A family of organic molecules which all contain the same functional group, but have an increasing number of carbon atoms.
What is hydrogen bonding? An intermolecular force between the lone pair on an electronegative atom (N, O or F) and a hydrogen atom bonded to such an electronegative atom.
What counts as an 'Ideal Gas'? One that obeys the idea gas equation, pv=nRT
What is an ionic bond? The Electrostatic force of attraction between opositely charged ions.
Describe an Ion. An atom or group of atoms which has lost or gained one r more electrons, giving it a negative or positive charge.
What are 'Isomers'? Molecules with the same chemical formula, but in which the atms are arranged differently.
What are 'Isotopes'? Atoms of the same element with the same atomic number but different mass numbers.
Describe a macromolecular (giant) Crystal A large, covalently bonded lattice structure.
Definw a macromolecule. A large molecule.
What does the mass number (A) represent? The total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of one atom of the element.
Describe metallic bonding. Elecrostatic atteaction between metal ions and delocalised electrons.
What is a 'mole'? A quantity of particles. 1 mole is 6.022 x 10 23rd particles.
What is the molecular formula? The actual numbers of atoms in each element in a molecule.
What do neutral atoms contain? The same number of protons and electrons.
What are 'orbitals'? Volumes in space around the nucleus within which electrons are most likely to be found.
What is the equation for 'Percentage atom economy'? [Mass of desired product/total mass of reactants]x100
What is the definition of 'percentage atom economy'? A measure of how much of a desired product in a reaction is formed from the reactants.
What is 'Percentage yield'? It is a practical measure of the effciency of a reaction.
What is the equation for percentage yield? [Actual mass of product/maximum mass of products] x 100
What is 'Polarity'? It is the displacement of electron density (formation of an electric dipole) in a covalent bond, orin a moleule, due to a difference in electronegativity.
What are position isomers? Structural isomers which have the same carbon skeleton and the same functional group, but the functional group is in a different place on the chain.
What is the formula for relative atomic mass (Ar)? Average mass of one atom of an element/1/12 x the mass of one atom of C12
What is the formula for relative molecular mass (Mr)? Average mass of one molecule/ 1/12 x the mass of one atom of C12
What are saturated Hydrocarbons? They contain C-C single bonds and C-H bonds.
What is a 'Square Planar'? The spatial arrangement of a central aom surrounded by four atoms situated at the corners of a square.
Created by: AmberRose