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Astronomy PHY 172

Notes

QuestionAnswer
List all 8 Planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune
Name the 4 Terrestrial Planets Mercury, Venus, Mars, and Earth
Name the 4 Jovian Planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune
What is the hottest Planet? Venus
What is the largest volcano in the Solar System? and which Planet does it exist on? Olympic Mons; Mars
What is the largest Planet? Jupiter
List 2 characteristics of Jupter Equitorial bulge; Rings
What is the fastest spinning Planet? Jupiter
What is the most volcanically active object in space? Io; a moon of Jupiter
What is the largest moon of Jupiter? Ganymede
What is the surface of Jupiter's moon, Callisto? A sub surface ocean
What is the least dense Planet? Saturn
What Planet has the largest equatorial bulge? Saturn
Which Planet has the largest ring system? Saturn
What is Saturn's largest moon? Titan
Which is the only moon with an atmosphere? Titan
What is Uranus's tilt? 98 Degrees
What is the most dense Jovian Planet? Neptune
Which law explains the positions of planets in AU? Titius-Bode Law
Who found the Asteroid Belt? Giuseppe Piazzi
What is the largest Asteroid? Ceres
What is the distance where Asteroids do not exist? "Kirkwood" gaps
What are NEO's? Near Earth Objects
What is a Type 1 Comet? Ion Tail
What is a Type 2 Comet? Dust Tail
What is a Radiant Point? The point in the sky from which the meteors APPEAR to be coming from
How far away is the Sun from the Earth? 93 Million miles
What are the 3 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer? Conduction, Convection, and Radiation
How does the Sun produce energy? Nuclear Fusion
When does Nuclear Fusion occur? 10 Million Kelvin
What causes sunspots? Magnetic Fields
What is the surface temperature of the Sun? 5500 Kelvin
What are the 3 basic things on the Sun's surface? Spicules, Prominences, and Solar Flares
What are Spicules? Grass-like columns
What are Prominences? Hydrogen suspended by a magnetic field
What are Solar Flares? Sun Quakes
What is star brightness measured in? Magnitude
Who came up with ranking Brightness? Hipparchus
Who started "apparent magnitude" and used m? N.R. Pogson
What is the brightest star? Sirius
What is Absolute Magnitude? (M) is apparent magnitude at a fixed distance
What is Apparent Magnitude? (m) is based on what we can see
What is not accounted for in Absolute Magnitude? Distance
What is a Parallax? the "movement" of stars because of Earth's rotation
If a star appears to move a lot... it is closer
What is Luminosity? Power emitted by a star
What is the Wien Displacement Law? Color and Temperature are related
What is Stefan-Boltzmann Law? Brightness and Temperature are related
What is the Spectral Classification? (hottest) OBAFGKM (coolest)
What color are O, B, A stars? Bluish-White
What color are F, G stars? Yellowish
What color are K, M stars? Orange-Redish
What is the Spectral Classification of the Sun? G-2-V
What are the Luminosity Classes? The stages of stars
What is the 5th (V) class? The Main Sequence
What is the HR diagram? Graph of Brightness vs Color of stars
Where do 90% of all stars lie along? The Main Sequence
What are the 3 types of Star Motion? Radial, Proper, and Wobble
What is Radial star motion? Moving toward us (blue = toward) (red = away)
What is Proper star motion? Across horizontally
What is Wobble star motion? Wobble due to gravity
What is a Variable Star? One that changes Brightness
What do Variable Stars serve as? Indicators of Distance
What is the most common Variable Star? Cephed
Created by: jmartin209