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Chemistry Chapter 25

Chemistry Chapter 25 Notes/Test Review

nucleons atomic nucleus made of protons and neutrons collectively
nuclides what an atom is called in nuclear chemistry
two ways of writing nuclides symbol: mass number/atomic number SYMBOL element name-mass number
mass defect the difference between the mass of the atom and the sum of the masses of its protons, neutrons, and electrons
nuclear binding energy energy released when a nucleus is formed from nucleons (E=MC2)
binding energy per neucleon binding energy is divided by the number of nucleons it contains
band of stability neutrons-protons-dots the chart that shows until a nuclide is stable
nuclear shell model nucleons exist in different energy levels or shells in the nucleus
magic numbers numbers of nucleons that represent completed nuclear energy levels 2,8,20,28,50,82,126
nuclear reactions reaction that affects the nucleus of an atom
transmutation a change in the identity of a nucleus as a result of a change in the number of its protons
radioactive decay spontaneous disintegration of a nucleus into a slightly lighter nucleus (emits particles and/or radiation)
nuclear radiation particles or radiation emitted from the nucleus during decay
radioactive nuclide unstable nucleus that undergoes radioactive decay
alpha decay HE, 2 protons, 2 neutrons emitted from the nucleus during decay
beta decay electron, electron emitted from nucleus during decay
electron capture must happen before beta emission, inner orbital electron
positron beta is emitted from the nucleus during decay positive electron
gamma waves emitted from the nucleus as ig goes from ground to excited 0 mass 0 charge = dangerous
half life time required for 1/2 atoms of a radioactive nuclide to decay amount remaining = original X 1/2 N
decay series series of radioactive nuclides produced by successive radioactive decay until a stable nuclide is reached
parent and daughter nuclide parent: the heaviest nuclide of each decay series daughter: nuclides produced by the decay of the parent
artificial transmutations atoms with protons bombardment of stable nuclei with charged and uncharged particles
when does the decay series end when a stable nuclei has been produced
transuranium elements elements with more than 92 protons in their nuclei
radioactive dating process by which the approximate age of an object is determined based on the amount of certain radioactive nuclides present
fission very heavy nucleus splits into more stable nuclei
fusion light mass nuclei combine to form more stable nucleus
gieger counter gass filled metal tube- radiation detector
Created by: colonnettal