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B & W Ch 2 Chemistry

elements and the periodic table vocab

The very small center core of an atom. Nucleus
Small, positively charged particle in the nucleus of the atom. Proton
Small particle in the nucleus of an atom, with no electrical charge. Neutron
Tiny, negatively charged particle that moves around the nucleus of an atom. Electron
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. Atomic number
An atom with the same number of protons and a different number of neutrons from the other atoms of the same element. Isotope
The sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. Mass number
In science, a diagram, mental picture, mathematical statement, or an object that helps explain ideas about the natural world. Model
The average mass of all the isotopes of an element. Atomic mass
A chart of the elements showing the repeating patterns of their properties. Periodic Table
A one- or two letter representation of an element. Chemical symbol
Horizontal rows in the periodic table. Periods
Elements in the same vertical column of the periodic table; also called a family. Group
A class of elements characterized by physical properties that include shininess, malleability, ductility, and conductivity. Metals
A term used to describe material that can be pounded into shapes. Malleable
A term used to describe material that can be pulled out into a long wire. Ductile
The ability of an object to transfer heat or electricity to another object. Conductivity
The ease and speed with which an element combines, or reacts with other elements and compounds. Reactivity
The gradual wearing away of a metal element due to a chemical reaction. Corrosion
Elements in Group 1 of the periodic table. Alkali Metals
Elements in Group 2 of the periodic table. Alkaline Earth Metals
Elements in Group 3 - Group 12 of the periodic table. Transition Metals
A mixture of two or more elements, one of which is a metal. Alloy
A machine that moves atomic nuclei at higher and higher speeds until they crash into one another, sometimes forming heavier elements. Particle accelerator
An element that lacks most of the properties of a metal. Nonmetal
A molecule consisting of two atoms. Diatomic molecule
An element found in Group 17 of the periodic table. Halogen
An element found in Group 18 of the periodic table. Noble gas
An element that has some characteristics of both metals and nonmetals. Metalloid
A substance that can conduct electricity under some conditions. Semiconductor
A state of matter that consists of a gas-like mixture of free electrons and atoms stripped of their electrons. Plasma
The process in which two atomic nuclei combine to form a larger nucleus, forming a heavier element and releasing huge amounts of energy. Nuclear fusion
The cloud-like region of gases left over in the remains of a shrinking, sun-sized star. Nebula
An explosion of a massive star. Supernova
Created by: bwise