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Speech Science Ch. 2-3

Speech Chain The sequence of events that occur from when an individual has a thought to when a listener understands that thought.
Speech Production Feedback Mechanisms Ways you are aware of your own speech: a part of the output returning to the input.
Auditory Feedback When you hear your own speech; air and bone conducted.
Tactile Feedback Info you get about your speech from touch: lips, tongue, teeth (unconscious)
Proprioceptive Feedback Your sense of movement and position of your muscles (mostly your tongue).
Internal Brain Feedback Information feedback within the brain--when you start speaking your brain starts sending messages to other parts of the brain.
Acoustics The study of the physics of sound.
Sound Physical: setting up the vibrations of particles. Psychological: someone has an ear to regognise it.
Transmitting Medium Air.
Sound Source What produces the sound.
Mass The amount of matter that is present.
Density tThe amount of mass per unit volume.
Elasticity The ability to resist changes to its original shape or volume; the tendancy of something to return to its former volume or position.
Inertia (Newton's First Law of Motion) The tendancy of a body in motion to remain in motion and the tendency of a body at rest to remain at rest.
Compression Region with a high density of particles.
Rarefaction Region with a low density of particles.
Energy The measure of the capacity to do work OR something that can produce a change in matter.
Work The force applied times the distance moved.
Potential Energy Stored energy.
Kinetic Energy Energy of motion.
Frictional Resistance Opposition to motion; keeps it from going on forever.
Amplitude The maximum displacement of the particles of a medium; the distance between the baseline and the maximum displacement. (Loudness).
Frequency The number of cycles compled per second. (Pitch).
Period The time (seconds) it takes for a vibration to complete one cycle of vibration.
Trasverse Wave Motion The direction of the vibration of the source is at right angles to the direction of the wave in the medium.
Longitudinal Wave Motion The direction of the wave vibration of the source is parallel to the direction of the wave.
Simple Harmonic Motion Sinusoidal Motion (a sine wave form).
Amplitude The measure of the strength or magnitude of the sine wave.
Air Pressure Changes the amplitude of the sounds that come from our vocal cords.
Period = 1/f
Frequency = 1/T
1 second = 1000 ms
1 kHz = 1000 Hz
Natural Frequency The frequency with which a certain system naturally vibrates.
Wavelength The distance traveled by a sound wave during one period of vibration.
Wavelenth = 340m.per.s/f
Damping Friction and/or resistance cause a loss of energy.
Ordinal Scale One object has more or less of some quentity than another.
Interval (linear) Scale The size of interval between the numbers is some constant value.
Logarithmic Scale One unit on the scale is so many times greater (or less) than another; successive units are always different by some constant ratio, and the constant ratio always equals the base.
(deci) Bel An arbitrary logarithmic unit used to represent sound amplitude on an interval scale.
dBIL (Intensity Level)= 10 log(I1/I2)
Reference I2 = 10^-12 watts/m^2
dbSPL (Sound Pressure Level) = 20 log(P1/P2)
Reference p2 = 2 x 10^1 microPascals
Complex Wave Any sound that is not sinusoidal; it itself is composed of a series of simple sine waves that can differ in amplitude, frequency, and phase.
Fourier Analysis Takes a complex wave form and decomposes/analyzes it to determine the amplitudes, frequencies, and phases of its sine wave componants.
Periodic Wave A wave that repeats itself at regular intervals over time.
Harmonic Relation The frequencies of all of the sinusoids that compose the series must be intiger multiples of the lowest frequency component in the series.
Harmonic Serioes When a harmonic relation exists among frequencie components.
Harmonics All of the sinusoids in a harmonic series.
Fundamental Frequency (F0) The first harmonic.
Aperiodic Wave A wave with an absense of periodicity, where it is impossible to predict what the wave will look like from one time to the next. Its vibratory motion is random.
Transient An aperiodic sound with a very short duration; a burst of noise.
Random/continuous Aperiodic vibrations that occur continuously.
Waveform A graph in which changes in pressure or amplitude (displacement), are shown as a function of time.
Amplitude Spectrum (Line Spectra) Shows amplitude as a finction of frequency at a single instant in time.
Spectral Envelope An imagined line connecting the peaks of each of the vertical lines.
Transient and Continuous Spectrum Energy is present at all frequencies between upper and lower frequency limits.
Spectogram Shows disturbances in terms of frequency and amplitude variations as a function of time.
Resonance How the shape of space affects sound.
The Principle of Resonance When a periodically vibrating force is applied to an elastic system, the elastic system will be forced to vibrate initially at the frequency of the applied force.
Sympathetic Vibration If two objects are close to the same resonating frequency, one vibrating object will cause another one to start vibrating through the air.
Sounding-Board Effect One object vibrating put on another object with a large S.A. with another object of a similar findamental (or resonant) frequency, the 2nd object will start to vibrate.
Cavity (Acoustical) Resonance Guitar - sounds go into a guitar and cause air inside the guitar and the guitar body to vibrate.
FIlters Acoustic resonators (like the vocal tract) are important because they also act as ___ by dampening some of the frequencies
Bandwidth The range of frequencies that a resonator will transmit, determined by the shape of the cavity and if it is opened or closed at its ends.
Narrowly Tuned Resonator Responds slowly to changes in frequencies and fades away slowly.
Broadly Tuned Resonator Responds quickly to changes in frequencies.
The Center Frequency The natural frequency of the resonator, the one that gives the greatest amplitude of vibration.
The Upper and Lower Cutoff Frequencies Above and below the center frequency at whick there is an amplitude of response decreased by 3dB.
Bandwidth or Passband The frequencies between the upper and lower cutoff frequencies.
Low-pass Filter It passes energy below a designated upper cutoff frequency.
High-pass Filter Pass energy above a designated lower cutoff frequency.
Band-pass Filter Passes energy in a particular range of frequencies between upper and lower cutoff points. (EX the vocal tract).
Frequency Variability The fact that people change their frequency when they speak. Frequency can vary by sex, age, culture, and emotion.
Created by: sixleaf
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