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phsyical science

classification of matter

matter anything that has mass and takes up space.
atom particles that make up matter.
element sample of matter of which all of the atoms are alike (oxygen)
compound material made from two or more elements that are combined (h2o)
substance can be either an element or a compound
mixture material made up of two or more substances (kool aid)
heterogeneous mixture materials can be easliy distinguished (different candies)
homogeneous mixture two or more substances are uniformly spread out (brownie mix, or salt water)
solution another name for homogeneous mixture
colloid heterogeneous mixture that never settles. (milk or gelatin)
suspension heterogeneous mixture containing a liquid in which visible particles never settle. (muddy water)
tyndall effect scattering of light by particles in a mixture (smog)
smog form of air pollution, is a type of mixture that results from auto exhaust, burning things, CFC's, etc.
physical property any characteristic of a material that you can observe without changing the substances that make up the material... shape, color, size, density, boiling point(melting point), state of matter(5 senses)
physical change change in size, shape, or state of matter (or any physical property)... boiling, evaporating, subliming, freezing.
chemical property characteristics of a substance that indicates if it can undergo a certain chemical change... fammability, combustibility, volatility.
chemical change a change of one substance in a material to a different substance... Burning, rusting, many different chemical reactions.
law of conservation of mass matter (mass) is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical change.
solid state of matter with a definite volume and a definite shape.
liquid state of matter with a definite volume, but no definite shape.
gas state of matter with no definite volume and no definite shape.
plasma gas-like mixture of positively and negatively charged particles.
thermal expansion almost all matter expands as it gets hotter, and contracts as it gets cooler.
evaporation liquid changes to a gas at temperatures below the boiling point.
sublimation solid changes directly to a gas without going to a liquid state.
boiling liquid changes to as gas at or above the boiling point.
condensation gas changes to liquid
heat of fusion amount of energy needed to change a material from a solid state to the liquid state... for water... it is 334Kj/Kg... so it takes 334Kj of energy.
boyle's law if you decrease the volume of a container of gas, the pressure of the gas will increase, assuming that the temperature does not change... rubber balloon.
charles law if you increase the temperature of a gas, the volume of that gas will increase, assuming that pressure stays the same. balloon
buoyancy the ability of a fluid, liquid or gas, to exert an upward force on an object immersed in it.
archimedes' principle the buoyancy force on an object in a fluid is equal to the weight of a fluid displaced by the object.
pascal's principle pressure applied to a fluid is transmitted unchanged throughout the fluid... squeezing a balloon.
heat of vaporization the amount of energy that it takes to change a material from a liquid to a gas.
crystals particles with repeating geometric shapes.
pressure(P) the amount of force exerted per unit of area, and it is measured in pascal's (Pa)
melting changing from a solid to a liquid.
freezing changing a liquid to a soild
kinetic-molecular theory says that there is a temperature where all molecular motion increases, this is called absolute zero and it happens at -273.15 degrees C.
Gay-Lussac's Law states that the pressure of a sample of gas at constant volume, is directly proportional to its temperature in Kelvin.
bernoulli's principle as the velocity of a fluid increases, the pressure exerted by the fluid decreases.
differance between physical properties, chemical properties, physical changes, and chemical changes. physical property-observe without changing. physical change-change size, shape, or state of matter. chemical property-substance can undergo chemical change. chemical change-change from one substance to another substance.
describe the law of conservation of energy and how it applies to chemistry or physical science. states that energy may neither be created nor destroyed. Therefore the sum of all the energies in the system is a constant.
tell the difference between a homogeneous and heterogeneous, give examples. homogeneous is when two or more substances are uniformly spread out. like milk, and salt water. heterogeneous is when it can be easily distinguished, like mixed candy.
describe a solid, liquid and gas. (shape, volume, molecular arrangement, and molecular motion.) solid- holds shape and has a fixed volume. liquid- shape of container, free surface and fixed volume. gas- shape to container and volume to container.
explain what thermal expansions is and how it works. give examples. almost all matter expands as it gets hotter, and contracts as it gets cooler. example: like a crowd at a concert , as it gets warmer, people get restless and push and spread out, as it gets cooler, people huddle from warmth again.
identify changes of state, solid is definite volume and shape. liquid is definite volume but no definite shape. gas is no definit shape nor volume.
discuss how pressure works, know pascal's law. amount of force exerted per unit of area. pascal's law is pressure applied to a fluid. like squeezing a balloon.
understand how buoyancy works, know archimedes prinicple; how it affects boats. if the buoyancy force and weight is equal then the boat will float. archimedes is when the buoyancy has equal weight and force.
bernouilli's principle and how it works to keep a airplance in the air. when the velocity of the fluid increases, the pressure exerted by the fluid decreases. it results to the plance being able to stay in the air.
Created by: jewelladner