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Chapter 3

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Atom the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element
Plum-Pudding Model model of the atom by J. J. Thomson, who discovered the electron in 1897, was proposed in 1904 before the discovery of the atomic nucleus
Gold-Foil Experiment This classic diffraction experiment was conducted in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford.
Orbitals a wave function describing the state of a single electron in an atom
Nucleus a fundamental arrangement of atoms, as the benzene ring, that may occur in many compounds by substitution of atoms without a change in structure.
Proton a positivly charged elementary particle that is a fundamental constituent on all atomic nuclei.
Electron an elementary particle that is a fundamental constituent of matter, having a negative charge
Neutron an elementary particle having no charge, mass slightly greater than that of a proton
Mass Number the integer nearest in value to the atomic weight of an atom and equal to the number of nucleons in the nucleus of the atom.
Atomic Number the number of positive charges or protons in the nucleus of an atom of a given element, and therefore also the number of electrons normally surrounding the nucleu
Ion an electrically charged atom or group of atoms formed by the loss or gain of one or more electrons
Isotope any of two or more forms of a chemical element, having the same number of protons in the nucleus, or the same atomic number, but having different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus
Atomic Mass the mass of an isotope of an element measured in units formerly based on the mass of one hydrogen atom taken as a unit
Atomic Mass the mass of an isotope of an element measured in units formerly based on the mass of one hydrogen atom taken as a unit
Valence electrons an electron of an atom, located on the outermost shell
Octet any group of eight
Excited State any of the energy levels of a physical system, esp. an atom, molecule, etc., that has higher energy than the lowest energy level.
Ionization Energy the amount of energy required to remove an electron from an atom to form a cation
Electron Affinity the quantitative measure, usually given in electron-volts, of the tendency of an atom or molecule to capture an electron and to form a negative ion.
Electronegativity assuming negative potential when in contact with a dissimilar substance
Created by: wpotter30