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chemist chapter 3

chemastry chapter 3

atom a basic unit of matter that consists of a dense, central nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons.
plum-pudding model the atom is composed of electrons surrounded by a soup of positive charge to balance the electrons' negative charges, like negatively-charged "plums" surrounded by positively-charged "pudding".
gold-foil experiment he shot a very thin peice of gold foil with a stream of postively charged particles known as the alpha particles. he found that most of the alpha particles passed sraight through the foil.
orbitals the aria of space an electron takes up
nucleus consists of protons and neutrons
proton positavly charged electron
neutron negetavly charged electron
mass number the total number of protons and neutrons
atomic number is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom
ion an atom or molecule that has gained or lost one or more electrons
isotopes are different types of atoms of the same chemical element, each having a different number of neutrons
atomic mass is the mass of a specific isotope of a given atom, most often expressed in unified atomic mass units
valence electrons determns how the atom reacts chemically with other atoms.
octet Group of eight valence electrons surrounding an atom.
excited state state in which an atom or molecule picks up outside energy
ionization energy the minimal energy required to remove an electron from the atom
electron affinity the energy change when an electron is added to the neutral species
Created by: CLongwell