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Chapter 3

Atom The smallest particle currently known. It consists of a positve core and a surrounding space occupied by negative electrons
Plum-Pudding Model Showed electrons just floating around everywhere inside a circle, with no order.
Gold-Foil Experiment This experiment proved that there was more than empty space in the core of the atoms.
Orbitals The model for that atom where electrons orbit the protons and neutrons.
Nucleus Located in the atom, it contains protons and neutrons.
Proton Have a positive charge, located in the nucleus of the atom, has a mass of 1 amu, the number of protons of each atom of an element are the same.
Electron Has a negative charge, is located in a cloud sourrounding the nucleus, has a mass of 1/1836
Neutron Has a neutral charge, located in the nucleus of the atom, has an equal mass to protons at 1 amu, holds atom together.
Mass Number Sum of protons and neutrons, not to be confused with the Atomic Number.
Atomic Number The number of protons in any given atom of an element.
Ion A non-neutral atom in which the # of electrons is not equal to the # of protons.
Isotope Atoms of the same element that have the same # of protons, but different #'s of neutrons
Atomic Mass The mass of a specific isotype of a given atom.
Valence electrons The outermost electrons of any atom, which are important in determining how the atom reacts chemically with other atoms.
Octet A chemistry rule that states atoms tend to combine so that they have 8 electrons in their valence shells, giving them the same electronic configuration as a noble gas
Excited State An elevation in energy level from the baseline energy state.
Ionization Energy The minimum energy required to remove an electron from its atom in its ground electronic state.
Electron Affinity This is the energy change when an electron is added to the neutral species to form a negative ion.
Electronegativity This is a chemical property that describes the ability of an atom to attract electrons towards itself.
Created by: mquade