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2010 vocab, #4

chemistry, chapter one, vocabulary list four

Atom the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element, consisting of a nucleus containing combinations of neutrons and protons and one or more electrons bound to the nucleus by electrical attraction
Plum-Pudding Model The plum pudding model of the atom by J. J. Thomson, who discovered the electron in 1897, was proposed in 1904 before the discovery of the atomic nucleus. In this model, the atom is composed of electrons
Gold-Foil Experiment The Geiger–Marsden experiment (also called the Gold foil experiment or the Rutherford experiment) was an experiment to probe the structure of the atom performed by Hans Geiger and Ernest Marsden in 1909
Orbitals of or pertaining to an orbit.
Nucleus a central part about which other parts are grouped or gathered; core
Proton a positively charged elementary particle that is a fundamental constituent of all atomic nuclei
Electron Also called negatron. Physics, Chemistry . an elementary particle that is a fundamental constituent of matter
Neutron an elementary particle having no charge, and a mass slightly greater than that of a proton
Mass Number the integer nearest in value to the atomic weight of an atom and equal to the number of nucleons in the nucleus of the atom
Atomic Number the number of positive charges or protons in the nucleus of an atom of a given element, and therefore also the number of electrons normally surrounding the nucleus
Ion an electrically charged atom or group of atoms formed by the loss or gain of one or more electrons
Isotope any of two or more forms of a chemical element, having the same number of protons in the nucleus, or the same atomic number, but having different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus, or different atomic weights
Atomic Mass the mass of an isotope of an element measured in units formerly based on the mass of one hydrogen atom taken as a unit
Valence electrons an electron of an atom, located in the outermost shell (valence shell) of the atom, that can be transferred to or shared with another atom.
Octet any group of eight.
Excited State any of the energy levels of a physical system, esp. an atom, molecule, etc., that has higher energy than the lowest energy level.
Ionization Energy the amount of energy required to remove an electron from an atom to form a cation; also called ionization potential
Electron Affinity the quantitative measure, usually given in electron-volts, of the tendency of an atom or molecule to capture an electron and to form a negative ion.
Electronegativity containing negative electricity; tending to migrate to the positive pole in electrolysis.
Created by: bzyla