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sfChemistry Midterm

chemistry study of matter and the changes that it undergoes
matter anything that takes up space and has mass
weight mass with gravitational force
mass measure of inertia in an object
inertia ability of an object to resist motion
nature of matter composition, forces and observable properties
physical changes doesn't change chemical composition of an object
chemical changes changes chemical composition of an object
energy ability to do work
kinetic energy energy of motion
potential energy stored energy
inorganic chemistry study of elements not carbon
organic chemistry study of certain carbon compounds
biochemistry study of compounds of living organisms
embalming chemistry study of changes related to disinfection and preservation of human remains
thanatochemistry study of physical and chemical changes in the human body caused by the process of death
International System of Units standard set of units used by all scientists
meter standard unit of measurement
liter standard unit of volume
kilogram standard unit of mass
calorie standard unit of heat
kilocalorie 1000 calories, standard used for food
mega M 1000000, 10^6
kilo, k 1000, 10^3
deci, d 0.1, 10^-1
centi, c 0.01, 10^-2
milli, m 0.001, 10^-3
micro, u 0.000001, 10^-6
nano, n 0.000000001, 10^-9
law of conservation of matter matter can not be created or destroyed, just rearranged
law conservation of energy 1st Law of Thermodynamics, energy neither created or destroyed
physical property characteristic that can be observed without altering the chemical composition of a substance
qualitative subjective: State, color, odor
quantitative Able to be measured. Objective. Melting, boiling, solubility
3 states of matter solid, liquid, gas
melting point Physical property. Temperature at a particular pressure which a substance changes form the solid state to a liquid state
freezing point Physical property. Same as melting point. Substance changing from liquid to a solid
boiling point Physical property. Temperature at a pressure which substance changes form liquid to a gas
solubility Physical property. How much of something will dissolve in a given amount of water or other liquid substance
density Physical property. Relationship between mass and volume. Density = M/V
specific gravity Physical property. Ratio of mass of the substance to the mass of and equal volume of watter at the same temp. SG = mass solid or liquid/mass of equal vol of water. Or Density/Density. No units
chemical property characteristic observed when substance reacting with other forms of matter and changes the substance. Burning, acid/base, salts, oxide
physical change Manifests a physical property. Changes in state, dissolving, ice melting, freezing, boiling
chemical change Manifests a chemical property that forms a new substance after reaction. burning, rusting, decomposition
oxidation Chemical change. Reacting with Oxygen. Burning, rusting. Also called combustion
decomposition Chemical changes of decomposition
States of matter Determined by amount of energy
solid -least energy -vibrates around fixed positions -absorbs heat to turn into liquid -has definite shape and volume
liquid -has intermediate energy and particles slide past one another -needs energy to become gas -doesn't have definite shape or volume
gas -most energetic -doesn't have definite shape or volume
heat of fusion specific quantity of heat that's absorbed to convert 1 gram of solid to 1 gram of liquid at the substance's melting point
Heat of fusion of water 80 calories
heat of vaporization amount of heat necessary to change 1 gram of substance from liquid to a gaseous state at boiling point
heat of vaporization of water 540 calories
exothermic process "out" - removing heat - any process that gives off, liberates, heat from the perspective of the substance X ---> Y + heat -> Y + heat Gas -> Liquid -> Solid
endothermic process "in" - adding heat - any process that absorbs heat X + Heat ----> Y
sublimation direct physical change in state from solid to gas Ex. Dry ice
entropy measure of amount of disorder or randomness
Increases --> Solid-Liquid-Gas > Solid-Liquid-Gas
Compressibility - property of gas volume of a gas may be decreases by increasing the pressure of the gas
expansivity - property of gas gas will increases its volume when heated
diffusibility movement of gas when introduced into a container. From higher concentration to lower
volume of gas volume of gas is equal to the volume of the container
pressure force per unit area and gas exerts a pressure on the wall of their containers
2 units of measures of pressure mercury barometer and torr 1 atmosphere (atm) = 760 Hg or 1 torr
gas laws describes relationship of the pressure, volume and temperature of a gas. PV/T = PV/T
Boyle's Law volume occupied by a gas is inversely proportional to the pressure as temperature remains constant. PV=PV 1 atmosphere (atm) = 760 Hg or 1 torr
Charles' Law volume of a fixed quantity of gas is directly proportional to its Kelvin temperature of the pressure remains constant. V/T=V/T. Example: incubator
Kelvin scale K = C + 273. Also known as absolute scale Temperature can't be Zero in the denominator
properties of liquid minimal free space. incompressible. Maintains their volume and takes shape of container
condensation transition from gas to a liquid
evaporation cooling, transition form liquid to gas, absorbs heat = endothermic
equilibrium opposing rates of condensation and evaporation are equal
equilibrium vapor pressure pressure exerted by vapor (gas) when it's in equilibrium with it's liquid
temperature vs vapor (gas) pressure as temperature increases, the vapor (gas) pressure of the liquid increases. Direct proportion
boiling rapid passage of liquid particles to the vapor (gas) state by forming bubbles
boiling point temperature which a liquid boils at
normal boiling point boiling point of water at 1 atm. 100C, 212F, 373K
freezing point temperature where substance changes from liquid to solid.
For water: 0C, 32F, 272K 32F
properties of solid nearly incompressible. low entropy. no expansivity. but not motionless
melting add heat to a substance and the kinetic energy of the particles increases until solid breaks apart
melting point temperature where substance changes from solid to liquid
2 categories of matter 1. pure substance and 2. mixtures
pure substances elements and compounds
elements substances that can't be decomposed by any further chemical or ordinary means
mixtures 2 or more nonchemically united substances that are in no definite proportion by mass
properties of compounds substances composed of two or more elements, chemically united in a particular proportion
law of Definite Proportions when 2 or more elements chemically combine, they always combine in a particular fixed or definite proportion by mass
4 types of inorganic compounds 1. oxides 2. acids 3. bases 4. salts
properties of mixtures formed with varying proportions of their components and can be separated into their component parts by physical changes
2 types of mixtures heterogeneous or homogeneous
freezing physical change from liquid to solid
freezing point temperature that a liquid freezes
normal freezing point temperature a liquid freezes at 1 atm
Created by: suleman