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# stinehart ch. 25

Question | Answer |
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1. Vibration | An oscillation, or repeating back and forth motion, about an equilibrium position. |

2. Wave | A disturbance that repeats regularly in space and time and that is transmitted progressively from one place to the next with no actual transport of matter. |

3. Period | The time required for a pendulum to make one to and fro swing. In general, the time required to complete a single cycle. |

4. Simple harmonic motion | The back and forth vibratory motion of a swinging pendulum. |

5. Sine curve | A curve whose shape represents the crests and troughs of a wave, as traced out by a swinging pendulum that drops a trail of sand over a moving conveyor belt. |

6. Crest | One of the places in a wave where the wave is highest or the disturbance is greatest. |

7. Trough | One of the places in a wave where the wave is the lowest, or the disturbance is greatest, in the opposite direction from a crest. |

8. Amplitude | The distance from th midpoint to the maximum (crest) of a wave, or, equivalently, from the midpoint to the minimum. |

9. Wavelength | The distance from the top of the crest of a wave to the top of the following crest, or equivalently, the distance between successive identical parts of the wave. |

10. Frequency | The number of events (cycles, vibrations, oscillations, or any repeated event)) per time; measured in hertz. Inverse of the period. |

11. Hertz | The SI unit of frequency. One hertz (Hz) is one cycle per second. |

12. Transverse wave | A wave with a vibration at right angles to the direction the wave is traveling. |

13. Longitudinal wave | A wave in which the vibration is in the same direction as that in which the wave is traveling, rather than at right angles to it. |

14. Interference pattern | A pattern formed by the overlapping of two or more waves that arrive in a region at the same time. |

15. Constructive interference | Addition of two or more waves when wave crests overlap to produce a resulting wave of increased amplitude. |

16. Destructive interference | Combination of waves where crests of one wave overlap troughs of another, resulting in a wave of decreased amplitude. |

17. Out of phase | Term applied to two waves for which the crest of one wave arrives at a point at the same time that a trough of the second wave arrives. Their effects cancel each other. |

18. In phase | Term applied to two or more waves whose crests (and troughs) arrive at a place at the same time, so that their effects reinforce each other. |

19. Standing wave | Wave in which parts of the wave remain stationary and the wave appears not to be traveling. The result of interference between an incident (original) wave and a reflected wave. |

20. Node | Any part of a standing wave that remains stationary. |

21. Antinodes | The positions on a standing wave where the largest amplitudes occur. |

22. Doppler effect | The apparent change in frequency of a wave due to the motion of the source or of the receiver. |

23. Blue shift | An increase in the measured frequency of light from an approaching source; called the blue shift because the apparent increase toward the high-frequency, or blue, end of the color spectrum. Also occurs when an observer approaches a source. |

24. Red shift | A decrease in the measured frequency of light (or other radiation) from a receding source; called the red shift because the decrease is toward the low-frequency, or red, end of the color spectrum. |

25. Bow wave | The V-shaped wave produced by an object moving on a liquid surface faster than the wave speed. |

26. Shock wave | A cone-shaped wave produced by an object moving at supersonic speed through a fluid. |

27. Sonic boom | The sharp crack heard when the shock wave that sweeps behind a supersonic aircraft reaches its listener. |