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# stinehart ch. 25

1. Vibration An oscillation, or repeating back and forth motion, about an equilibrium position.
2. Wave A disturbance that repeats regularly in space and time and that is transmitted progressively from one place to the next with no actual transport of matter.
3. Period The time required for a pendulum to make one to and fro swing. In general, the time required to complete a single cycle.
4. Simple harmonic motion The back and forth vibratory motion of a swinging pendulum.
5. Sine curve A curve whose shape represents the crests and troughs of a wave, as traced out by a swinging pendulum that drops a trail of sand over a moving conveyor belt.
6. Crest One of the places in a wave where the wave is highest or the disturbance is greatest.
7. Trough One of the places in a wave where the wave is the lowest, or the disturbance is greatest, in the opposite direction from a crest.
8. Amplitude The distance from th midpoint to the maximum (crest) of a wave, or, equivalently, from the midpoint to the minimum.
9. Wavelength The distance from the top of the crest of a wave to the top of the following crest, or equivalently, the distance between successive identical parts of the wave.
10. Frequency The number of events (cycles, vibrations, oscillations, or any repeated event)) per time; measured in hertz. Inverse of the period.
11. Hertz The SI unit of frequency. One hertz (Hz) is one cycle per second.
12. Transverse wave A wave with a vibration at right angles to the direction the wave is traveling.
13. Longitudinal wave A wave in which the vibration is in the same direction as that in which the wave is traveling, rather than at right angles to it.
14. Interference pattern A pattern formed by the overlapping of two or more waves that arrive in a region at the same time.
15. Constructive interference Addition of two or more waves when wave crests overlap to produce a resulting wave of increased amplitude.
16. Destructive interference Combination of waves where crests of one wave overlap troughs of another, resulting in a wave of decreased amplitude.
17. Out of phase Term applied to two waves for which the crest of one wave arrives at a point at the same time that a trough of the second wave arrives. Their effects cancel each other.
18. In phase Term applied to two or more waves whose crests (and troughs) arrive at a place at the same time, so that their effects reinforce each other.
19. Standing wave Wave in which parts of the wave remain stationary and the wave appears not to be traveling. The result of interference between an incident (original) wave and a reflected wave.
20. Node Any part of a standing wave that remains stationary.
21. Antinodes The positions on a standing wave where the largest amplitudes occur.
22. Doppler effect The apparent change in frequency of a wave due to the motion of the source or of the receiver.
23. Blue shift An increase in the measured frequency of light from an approaching source; called the blue shift because the apparent increase toward the high-frequency, or blue, end of the color spectrum. Also occurs when an observer approaches a source.
24. Red shift A decrease in the measured frequency of light (or other radiation) from a receding source; called the red shift because the decrease is toward the low-frequency, or red, end of the color spectrum.
25. Bow wave The V-shaped wave produced by an object moving on a liquid surface faster than the wave speed.
26. Shock wave A cone-shaped wave produced by an object moving at supersonic speed through a fluid.
27. Sonic boom The sharp crack heard when the shock wave that sweeps behind a supersonic aircraft reaches its listener.
Created by: bstinehart