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Unruh's Chapter 25 Vocabulary
|an oscillation, or repeating back-and-forth motion, about an equilibrium position
|a distance that repeats regurlarly in a space and time and that is transmitted progressively from one place to the next with no actual transport of matter.
|The time required for a pendulum to make one to-and-fro swing. In general, the time required to complete a single cycle.
|the back-and-forth vibratory motion of a swinging pendulum
|simple harmonic motion
|a curve whose shape represents the crests and troughs of a wave, as traced out by a swinging pendulum that drops a trail of sand over a moving conveyor belt
|one of the places in a wave where the wave is highest or the disturbance is greatest
|one of the places in a wave where the wave is lowest, or the disturbance is greatest, in the opposite direction from a crest
|the distance from the midpoint to the maximum (crest) of a wave or, equivalently, from the midpoint to the minimum (trough)
|the distance from the top of the crest of a wave to the top of the following crest, or equivalently, the distance between successive identical parts of the wave.
|the number of events (cycles, vibrations, oscillations, or any repeated event) per time; measured in hertz (or events per time). Inverse of period.
|the SI unit of frequency. One hertz (Hz) is one cycle per second.
|a wave with vibration at right angles to the direction the wave is traveling.
|a wave in which the vibration is the same direction as that in which the wave is traveling, rather than at right angles to it.
|a pattern formed by the overlapping of two or more waves that arrive in a region at the same time.
|addition of two of more waves when wave crests overlap to produce a resulting wave of increased amplitude
|combination of waves where crests of one wave overlap troughs of another, resulting in a wave of decreased amplitude.
|term applied to two waves for which the crest of one wave arrives at a point at the same time that a trough of the second wave arrives. Their effects cancel each other.
|out of phase
|term applied to two or more waves whose crests (and troughs) arrive at a place at the same time, so that their effects reinforce each other.
|wave in which parts of the wave remain stationary and the wave appears not to be traveling. The result of interference between an incident (original) wave and a reflected wave.
|any part of a standing wave that remains stationary
|the positions on a standing wave where the largest amplitudes occur
|the apparent change in frequency of a wave due to the motion of the source or of the receiver.
|an increase in the measured frequency of light from an approaching source; called the blue shift because the apparent increase is toward the high frequency, or blue, end of the color spectrum. Also occurs when an observer approaches a source.
|a decrease in the measured frequency of light (or other radiation) from a receding source; called the red shift because the decrease is toward the low frequency, or red, end of the color spectrum.
|the v-shaped wave produced by an object moving on a liquid surface faster than the wave speed.
|a cone-shaped wave produced by an object moving at supersonic speed through a fluid.
|the sharp crack heard when the shock wave that sweeps behind a supersonic aircraft reaches the listener.