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chem 2 chapter 15

acids and bases

Acids react with bases to form what? salt and water
Conjugate base the conjugate base of a bronsted acid is the species that remains when one proton has been removed from the acid.
Conjugate acid results from the addition of a proton to a bronsted base
every bronsted acid and base has a what? conjugate acid- base pair
Arrhenius acid is a substance that produces what? a H+ in water
Arrhenius base is a substance that produces what? OH- in water
A bronsted acid is a proton donor
A bronsted base is a proton acceptor
auto ionization of water water breaks down bu itself to produce H3O+ OH
the ion product constant (Kw) is the product of the molar concentrations of H+ and OH- ions at a particular temperature.
Kw= [H+][OH-]=1.0 X 10^14
[H+]=[OH-] neutral [H+]=1.0x10^-7 ph=7
[H+]>[OH-] acidic [H+]>1.0x10^-7 ph<7
[H+]<[OH-] basic [H+]<1.0x10^-7 ph>7
ph the negative logathrium of the hydrogen ion concentration in mol/L
pOH = -log[OH-]
[H+][OH-]=kw= 1.0x10^-14
-loh[H+]-[OH-]= 14.00
ph+pOH = 14.00
strong electrolyte 100% dissociation
weak electrolyte not completely dissociated
strong acids are strong electrolytes that are assumed to ionize completely in water
weak acids are weak electrolytes that only ionize in water to a limited extent in water
strong bases are strong electrolytes that completely ionize in water
weak bases are weak electrolytes
conjugate acid base pairs -the conjugate base of a strong acid has no measurable strength. (weak conjugate base) -H30+ is the strongest acid that can exist in an aqueous solution -the OH- ion is the strongest base that can exis in aqueous solution.
Ka Acid ionization constant equilibrium constant for the ionization of an acid. -the larger the Ka the stronger the acid -if we know the ph of a weak acid solution and its initial concentration, we can determine its Ka
Ka= [H+][A-]/[HA] the acid ionization constant
-log[H] gives you the pOH, 14-pOH=pH
If Ka/Kb= 1.0x10^-4 first calculate the % of ionization not correcting for dissociation
If Ka/Kb value is larger then 1/0x10^-4 must use quadratic equation
When is it ok to use the approximation? when x is less then 5% of the value from which it was subtracted
Solving weak acid ionization problems 1. identify the major species that can affect the ph. 2. use ICE 3. Write Ka in terms of equilibrium concentrations. Solve for x by the approximation method. 4. Calculate concentrations of all species and/or ph of the solution
percent ionization= (ionized concentration at equilibrium/initial concentration of acid)x 100
[HA]0 initial concentration
KaKb= Kw
How can you tell how strong a bond is? form the electronegativity
oxoacids 1.different central atoms that are from the same group and that have the same oxidation number. 2. oxoacids having the same central atom but different numbers of attached groups.
Acid strength increases as the oxidation number ___? increases
Neutral solutions salts containing an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal ion and the conjugate base of a strong acid
Basic solutions salts derived from a strong base and a weak acid
Acid solutions salts derived from a strong acid and a weak base
solutions in which both cation and anion hydrolyze: 1. Kb for the anion > ka for the cation, solution will be basic 2. Kb for the anion < ka for the cation, solution will be acidic 3. kb for the anion = ka for the cation, solution will be neutral
A lewis acid accepts a pair of electrons
a lewis base can donate a pair of electrons
Created by: majormayhem