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Chemistry 2nd quiz

What was Dalton's first atomic theory? All elemnts are composed of tiny invisble particles.
What was Dalton's second atomic theory? Atoms of the same element are identical. The atoms of any one element are diffrent from those of any other element.
What was Dalton's third atomic theory? Atoms of diffrent elements can chemically combine with one another to make a whole.
What was Dalton's fourth atomic theory? Chemical reactions occur when atoms are seperated, joined, and rearranged.
What did JJ Thompson do? He invented the Cathode Ray Tube experiment.
What did JJ Thompson saw? He saw the ray curl toward the positive magnet and away from the negative magnet.
What did JJ Thompson learn? He learned that the ray was negative.
What did James Chadwick confirm? He confirmed the existence of neutrons.
What did E Goldstein do? He realized that the proton was positive because of the Cathode Ray Tube.
What is another name for alpha particles? Protons stuck together.
What did Rutherford do? He shot alpha particles at a thin piece of gold foil and expected them to go right through.
What did Rutherford saw? He saw that most went through, but was surprised that some bounced off in random angles.
What did Rutherford learn? He learned that an atom is mostly empty space, but must have a dense positive center, where most of it's mass can be found.
What is an atomic number? The number of protons in the nucleus.
How do you find the mass number? Number of protons plus the number of neutrons.
How do you find the neutron number? Mass number minus atomic number.
What is an isotope? Atoms with the same number of protons, but diffrent number of neutrons.
What does AMU stand for? Atomic Mass Unit.
What is the average atomic mass? A weighted mass of the atoms in a naturally occuring sample of the element.
Who first organized the elements in order of increasing atomic mass? Mendeleev
Who determined the periodic table in which we do today? Henery Mosley, in 1913
What are periods? The horizontal rows of the periodic table.
What does the periodic law state? When the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, there is a periodic repitition of their physical and chemical properties?
What is a group? A vertical column of elements in the periodic table.
What is another name for a group? A family
What are representative elements? Are elements that exhibit a wide range of both physical and chemical properties.
What are the characteristics of metals? -They have a high electrical conductivity -Have a high lust when clean -Ductile
What are the characteristics of nonmetals? -Poor conductors -Nonlustrous -nonductile
What are the characteristics of Metalloids? They have some characteristics of metals and nonmetals.
What are halogens? Nonmetals
What are noble gases sometime called? Intert gases
What is Thompson's plum pudding model? He believed that the atom was a ball with a positive charge with negative electrons stuck in it.
What is Rutherford's nuclear model? He believed that most of the atom's mass is concentrated in a small, positivley charge region called the nucleus.
What is Bohr's model? He believed that electrons travel in definite orbits around the nucleus.
What are atomic orbitals? Region where you expect to find electrons 90% of the time.
How many S orbitals are there in each level? 1
How many P orbitals are there in each level? 3 starting at the second level.
How many D orbitals are there in each level? 5 starting at the third level.
How many F orbitals are there in each level? 7 starting at the fourth level.
What is the S orbital shape? Sphere
What is the P orbital shape? Dumbell
What is the D orbital shape? Clover, dumbell with a donut
What is the F orbital shape? To complex
How many electrons fit into an orbital? 2 electrons
What is the order of the energy levels starting from the lowest? S, P, D, and F
What does the aufbau principle state? Electrons enter the lowest energy orbital first.
Are electrons lazy? Yes
What is Pouli's exclusion principle? The two electons have opposite spins and there can only be two electrons in each orbital.
What is Hund's rule? He said that the electron will occupy another orbital before paring up.
Atomic Size:What happens in a group trend ? Atomic size decreases as you move right.
Ionization Energy: Energy required to remove an electron from an element in a gaseous state.
Ionization Energy: Group Trend Ionization energy decreases as you move down a group.
If an electron is far from the nucleus does it require much energy to remove it? No
Ionization Energy: Periodic Trend Ionization energy increases as you move right.
Electronegativity: Tendency of an element to hold electrons closley in a bond.
Electronegativity: Group trend Electronegativity decreases as you move down.
Electronegativity: Periodic trend Electronegativity incrases as you move right.
Created by: candy1995