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Chemistry Qtr 1

The study of the nature of matter and the changes that matter undergoes Chemistry
Anything that possesses mass and occupies space Mass
What is the nature of matter? The composition, the forces holding its parts together, and its observable properties
4 Primary Classes of Compounds Acids, Bases, Salts, Oxides
Law in which two or more elements combine in a fixed or definite proportion by mass Law of Definite Proportions
Energy is neither created or destroyed Law of Conservation of Energy
Matter is neither created or destroyed, just simply rearranged Law of Conservation of Matter
Bond where there is a transfer of electrons, electrostatic bonding Ionic Bonding
Bond where atoms share electrons Covalent Bonding
Theory where same charges repel one another Repulsive Theory
Does not cause a change in the chemical composition of a material (ex. melting, boiling, freezing) Physical Change
Changes that result in the formation of new substances (ex. cremation, embalming) Chemical Change
The ability to do work Energy
The energy of motion (ex. H2O falling, a falling pen) Kinetic Energy
Stored energy (ex. drawn bow, battery energy) Potential Energy
The study of compounds usually containing elements other than carbon Inorganic Chemistry
The study of certain carbon compounds Organic Chemistry
The study of compounds produced by living organisms Biochemistry
Compounds are.... chemically united by bonds
Molecules that are not chemically united are in a.... Solution
The study of those physical and chemical changes in the human body that are caused by the process of death Thanatochemistry
The study of those types of matter and changes in matter related to the disinfection and preservation of a human remains Embalming Chemistry
International System of Units is also known as... The Metric System & SI Units
Standard unit of Length meter (m)
Standard unit of Volume liter (l)
Standard unit of Mass kilogram (kg)
Standard unit of Heat calorie (cal)
The 3 States of Matter Solid, Liquid, Gas
A characteristic that can be observed without altering the chemical composition of a substance Physical Property
Temperature at a given pressure at which a substance changes from the solid state to the liquid state Melting Point
The same temperature as the melting point but the substance is changing from liquid to the solid state Freezing Point
Temperature at a given pressure at which a substance changes from the liquid to the gaseous state Boiling Point
Melting is a ________ ________ while the melting point is a _________ ________ Physical Change; Physical Property
How much of something will dissolve in a given amount of water Solubility
Expresses the relationship between its mass and volume Density (mass/volume)
Ratio of the mass of the substance to the mass of an equal volume of water at the same temperature Specific Gravity
A characteristic that can be observed when the substance is interacting with other forms of matter Chemical Property
Whenever matter is burned in the presence of oxygen oxides are formed. This process is called.... Combustion
Decomposition is initiated by.... Hydrolysis
Process of water breaking apart is... Hydrolysis
The state of matter is determined by... the amount of energy it possesses
The most energetic state of matter is ______ The least energetic state of matter is _______ The state with an intermediate amount of energy is _______ Gaseous State Solid State Liquid State
The state of matter where each particle possesses random rapid motion independent of the other particles Gaseous State
The state of matter where the particles slide past one another Liquid State
The state of matter where the particles vibrate around fixed positions Solid State
A specific quantity of heat that is absorbed to convert 1 gram of a solid to 1 gram of the liquid at the substances melting point Heat of Fusion
The amount of heat necessary to change 1 gram of a substance from the liquid to the gaseous state at the boiling point Heat of Vaporization
The heat of fusion for water is _______ 80 calories per gram
The heat of vaporization of water is ________ 540 calories per gram
Any process that liberates heat is.... Exothermic
Any process that absorbs heat is.... Endothermic
Change in state directly from the solid state to the gaseous state Sublimation
A measure of the amount of disorder or randomness Entropy
Name the 3 states by highest entropy to least entropy Gaseous, Liquid, Solid
3 Properties of Gas Compressibility, Expansivity, Diffusibility
The volume of a gas is equal to... the volume of the container
Law which states that the volume occupied by a gas is inversely proportional to the pressure if the temp remains constant P1V1=P2V2 Boyle's Law
Law which states that the volume of a fixed quantity of gas is directly proportional to its Kelvin temp if the pressure remains constant V1=V2 T1 T2 Charles Law
Law that states as the temp of a gas increases the pressure increases and vice versa if the volume remains constant P1=P2 T1 T2 Gay-Lussac's Law
Gases do not have a definite _____ or _______ Shape; Volume
_____ do not have a constant shape but do have a definite _______ Liquids; Volume
Solids have a definite ______ and _____ Shape; Volume
Transition from liquid to gas that is a cooling process Evaporation
Transition from gas to liquid Condensation
When two opposing rates are equal Equilibrium
The pressure exerted by a vapor when it is in equilibrium Equilibrium Vapor Pressure
2 Types of Matter Pure substances & Mixtures
Substances that cannot be decomposed by further chemical means Elements
Substances composed of two or more elements chemically united in a definite proportion by mass Compound
Two or more nonchemically united substances that are in no definite proportion by mass Mixture
The most abundant element on Earth is... Oxygen
In the universe the most abundant element is... Hydrogen
_______ mixtures are characterized by uniform properties throughout their contents; uniform composition Homogeneous
_________ mixtures do not have uniform properties; not having uniform composition throughout Heterogeneous
The smallest particle of an element Atom
Atoms are composed of..... A small dense positively charged nucleus, surrounded by negatively charged particles (electrons)
Name the 3 subatomic particles Neutrons, Protons, Electrons
Where is the mass of an atom located? Nucleus
Which subatomic particles are located in the nucleus? Protons & Neutrons
Positively charged particle found in the nucleus of an atom, mass is 1 amu Proton
The atomic number (z) is determined by.... The number of protons, also the same number of electrons
Neutral subatomic unit found in the nucleus of an atom, mass is 1 amu Neutron
Atoms are known to be.... Neutral
Negatively charged particle found orbiting around the nucleus of an atom Electron
The atomic mass number is.... The total number of protons and neutrons
What is the force holding an atom together? The interaction of the positively charged nucleus and the negative electrons
Atoms of the same atomic number and different masses Isotopes
Isotopes have the same number of ______ & _______ but a different number of _________ Protons & Electrons Neutrons
Is it possible to tell the exact location of an electron? No
The electrons in the outer most energy level Valence Electrons
Valence electrons determine the..... Chemical properties of the atom
Plots that estimate where electrons are found in energy levels Orbitals
Each orbital can hold how many electrons? 2
The s orbital holds a total of how many electrons? 2
The p orbitals hold a total of how many electrons? 6
A shorthand system used to symbolize the positions of electrons in atoms Electron Configuration
The electron configuration give us 3 pieces of information... 1) # of the energy level 2) Type of orbital 3) # of electrons in the orbital
Atoms that gain or lose an electron Ions
If an atom loses one or more electron Positive Ion
If an atom gains one or more electron Negative Ion
Group IA Alkali Metals
Group IIA Alkaline Earth Metals
Group VIIA Halogens
Group VIIIA Noble Gases/Inert Gases
Rows on the periodic table are called.... Periods
Elements to the left of the heavy line are... Metals
Elements to the right of the heavy line are... Non-Metals
Atoms that join together form... Molecules
The smallest unit into which a compound may be divided and still retain the properties of that compound Molecule
The net attractive interaction between two atoms in a molecule are... Chemical Bonds
2 Types of chemical bonds Ionic and Covalent
Transfer of electrons from one atom to another results in... Ionic Bond
The electrostatic attraction between a positive and negative ion Ionic Bond
Bond formed by the sharing of electrons between two atoms Covalent Bond
The sharing of one pair of electrons Single Covalent Bond
The sharing of two pairs of electrons Double Covalent Bond
The sharing of three pairs of electrons Triple Covalent Bond
A measure of attractiveness of an atom for electrons Electronegativity
Covalent bonds between unlike atoms Polar Covalent Bonds
Covalent bonds between like atoms Nonpolar Covalent Bonds
Created by: sbarton