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CHM 140

CH 20

carbohydrate a polyhydroxyaldehyde or polyhydroxyketone, or a substance that gives these compounds on hydrolysis
monosaccharide single polyhydroxy aldehyde or ketone unit
oligosaccharide short chains of monosaccharides
polysaccharide long chains of monosaccharides
aldose a monosaccharide containing an aldehyde group
ketose a monosaccharide containing a ketone group
Fischer projection a two dimensional representation for showing the configuration of tetrahedral stereocenters
pyranose a six-membered hemiacetal ring
furanose a five-membered hemiacetal ring
mutarotation the change in specific rotation that accompanies the equilibration of a- and b-structures
glycoside a cyclic acetal derived from a monosaccharide
glycosidic bond the bond from the anomeric carbon to the -OR group
alditol the reduced form of a monosaccharide where the carbonyl group is reduced and the result is a polyhydroxy compound
aldonic acid the oxidized form of a monosaccharide where the aldehyde group is oxidized to a carboxylic acid
reducing sugar any carbohydrate that reacts with an oxidizing agent to form an aldonic acid
uronic acid the product formed when carbon 6 is oxidized by enzymes to the carboxylic acid
Conversion of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate is the first step in glycolysis
Sucrose or table sugar is made up of the two monosaccharides ____ and ___. glucose and fructose
Lactose is made up of the two monosaccharides ______ and ______ glucose and galactose
Maltose is made up of two units of the monosaccharide glucose
What is the difference between a homopolysaccharide and a heteropolysaccharide? Homopolysaccharide is made up of same the monosaccharides. Heteropolysaccharide is made up of different monosaccharides
The two polysaccharides that make up starch are amylose and amylopectin. a) What is the structure of amylose and amylopectin? Amylose unbranched chains 4000 D-glucose units joined by a-1,4-glycosidic bonds. Amylopectin contains chains up to 10,000 D-glucose units also joined by a-1,4-glycosidic bonds; at branch points, new chains of 24 to 30 units are a 1-6 glycosidic bonds
What type of glycosidic bonds (a or b) do they have in their structure?
Glycogen is the energy reserve carbohydrate for animals. a) Where is it stored in the body? b) What is the structure of glycogen? c) Does it have a or b glycosidic linkages? a) muscle and liver b)a branched polysaccharide of approximately 106 glucose units joined by a-1,4- and a-1,6-glycosidic bonds c)
Cellulose is the most widely distributed plant structural material. a) What is the structure of cellulose? b) Does it have a or b glycosidic linkages? a) a linear polysaccharide of D-glucose units joined by b-1,4-glycosidic bonds b)
Why can humans use starch and glycogen as a source of nutrition but can't use cellulose? Our digestive systems do not contain b-glucosidases, enzymes that catalyze hydrolysis of b-glucosidic bonds. Our digestive systems have only a-glucosidases
Hyaluronic acid is composed of repeating units of glucuronic acid and the N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine. Where is it found mostly in the body? In embryonic tissues and in specialized connective tissues such as synovial fluid, the lubricant of joints in the body, and the vitreous of the eye where it provides a clear, elastic gel that maintains the retina in its proper position
What is the general molecular formula for monosaccharides? CnH2nOn
Created by: fallsummerspring