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Periodicity

Clements 1st

QuestionAnswer
Who was Dimitri Mendeleev? -"Father of the perodic table" 1869 -organized elements by atomic mass -"eka": term for the missing elements names
Who is Lothar Meyer? -organized the perodic table by atomic volumes after Mendeleev
Who is Henry Moseley? -Student of Rutherford -X-ray diffraction;atomic number -Organized perodic table by atomic #
Hydrogen? -nonmetal -highly reactive -most abundant -1 valence electron
Group 1 Elements: The Alkali Metals? -exclude Hydrogen -soft (can be cut with a dull knife) -Highly reactive ( especially with water) -Make basic solutions in water -Good conductors of electricty(Na used in street lights) -one valence electron(when lost it is known as a Soudo reaction)
Group 2 Elements: The Alkaline Earth Metals? -harder than A. Metals -reactive, but not as reactive as Alkalis -makes basic solutions in H2O -All solids -Found in compunds with structural integrity(emeralds, aircraft, marble) - 2 Valence electrons
Group 3-12(b) Elements: Transition Metals? -Harder than 1 & 2 groups -Not very reactive -Varying properties -most good conductors -All soild except Hg -all natural except Tc
Lanthanide & Actinide Series: Inner Transition Metals? -Lanthanides: shiny & reactive -some useful;Nd magnets -Actinides: have at least 1 isotope -Transuranium elements are Atomic #93 and up are all synthetic and radio active (Np-Cr)
The Metalloides? -B Si Ge As Sb Te -Semiconductors- sometimes conduct/insulate -very cold- good conductors -very hot- good insulators
Group 17 Elements: The Halogens? -Most reactive nonmetals -combine easily with metals to form salts- "halogen" means "salt former" -consist of two solids(T,At)one liquid(Br) two gases at RT (F, Cl) -7 valence electrons
Group 18 Elements: The Noble Gases? -Virtually nonreactive nonmetals -stable -Happy valence electrons
Describe Density Trend? There isno definite trend going left right or up down
What is Atomic Radius? -Measured from the center of two atoms in a diatomic molecule. --Rb-distance/2=0.248 (two atom molecules with same atoms bonding to each other)
Define Sheiding Effect? When core electrons block some of the pull from the nucleus, reducing the pull of the outer electrons _ makes it large
Atomic radius trend? -Decreases going across period(electrons are added to same energy level) -Increases going down(electrons added farther away energy levels)
Describe Ionization energy? -Energy required to remove an electron from an atom or an ion-- measured in kJ/mol (energy)
Ionization trend? -Increases going across period -Decreases going down -Ionization energy is + - Noble gases will tend to have more Ion. energy
What is Electronegativity? -How willing an atom molecule is to bring in an extra electron
Electronegativity trend? -Increases going across a peroid (tendency to gain an electron) -Decreases going down a group (more resistance) F-highest Fr-lowest
What is Electron Affinity? -energy change: represents losing energy
Electon Affinity trend? -Increases going across period- there are more electrons in the same energy level;getting closer to noble gas -Decreases going down a group-electrons become farther away from the nucleus -Negative vaules-think absolute value
What are Natural Elements? -atomic #s 1-92 exculding Tc(43) -are made in stars; violent reactions occur, left overs make up natural elements
What are "so rare we don't care" elements? -Pr -At -Fr (so rare considered unnatual)
What are Fusion Reactions? -Primary sorce of energy -Mass exchanged for energy -4 H fuse to 1 He nucleus -Mass Defect=energy --mass of He nucleus < mass of 4 H (mass not conserved)
What is Nuclear Fusion? -Primary fusion in stars
Explain Fusion Reactions? -Start with small=big.
What do Fusion reactions require? -Lots of energy, but spit out a lot of energy -man-made fusion first performed: 1950s' Bomb
What are Fission Reactoins? -opposite of Fusion -first discovered by Rutherford -make new elements by hitting them with paricles really fast -resulting in breaking apart of element/absorption of fast particle -Start with big=small
A Fission reaction made the first synthetic elememt..? Tc - created by bombarding molybdenum targets with deuterons) -eventually found naturally in nature
Fission reactoins: Nuclear Bullets -p+ -n() -alpha particles (He nuclei) -beta particles(just electrons)
Created by: sbrocks