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Chemistry QI:QI

Vocabulary, Properties of Solids, Liquids, and Gases

Characteristic that can be observed without altering the chemical composition of a substance physical property
Properties may be qualitative or quantitative physical property
name three qualitative properties color, odor, taste
name three quantitative properties melting point, freezing point, boiling point, solubility, density, specific gravity
three typical states of matter solid, liquid, gas
specific temperature at a given pressure at which a substance changes from solid to liquid melting point
same temperature as the melting point, substance changes from liquid to solid freezing point
temperature at a given pressure at which a substance changes from liquid to gas boiling point
how much of something will dissolve in a given amount of water solubility
expresses the relationship between a substance's mass and volume density
density equation Density=mass/volume
how is density expressed with units unit of mass over unit of volume EX: 11.3 g/mL
ratio of mass of the substance to the mass of an equal volume of water at the same temperature specific gravity
any units for specific gravity no
characteristic of a substance that can be observed when it interacts with other forms of matter, results in an alteration of the chemical composition of the substance chemical property
examples of chemical property substance burning and forming new substances, how substance reacts with water, an acid, or a base
process that manifests a physical property physical change
examples of physical change change in state of matter, dissolving table salt or sugar into water, ice melting, water freezing, or water boiling
process that manifests a chemical property, which forms new substances with their own chemical and physical properties chemical change
examples of chemical change iron rusting, paper burning, cremation, milk souring, decomposition
order of protein decomposition 1) proteins break down into amino acids, 2) amino acids break down into AMINES and ORGANIC ACIDS, 3) AMINES break down into ammonia and hydrogen gas, 4)ORGANIC ACIDS break down into water, carbon dioxide, and oxygen
water breaking apart hydrolysis
what begins the process of protein decomp hydrolysis (enzymes react in moisture)
most energetic state of matter gas
state of matter with intermediate energy liquid
least energetic state of matter solid
each particle possesses random rapid motion independent of the other particles in which state? gas
in this state particles slide past each other liquid
in this state, particles vibrate around fixed positions solid
the change from a solid to a liquid to a gas by a particular form of matter is a ____ process endothermic
if a substance changes from gas to liquid to solid, a liberation of heat it is a ______ process exothermic
specific quantity of heat that is absorbed to convert 1 gram of solid to 1 gram of liquid at the substance's melting point heat of fusion
heat of fusion for water 80 calories per gram
amount of heat necessary to change 1 gram of a substance from the liquid to the gaseous state at the boiling point heat of vaporization
heat of vaporization for water 540 calories of heat per gram
any process that liberates heat exothermic
any process that absorbs heat endothermic
funeral service exothermic model plaster of paris and water
change in state directly from the solid state to the gas state sublimation
two examples of sublimation heating iodine crystals, dry ice
is sublimation a physical or a chemical change? physical change
a measure of the amount of disorder or randomness entropy
which state of matter has the least, intermediate, and most entropy? 1) solids=least, 2) liquids=intermed, 3) gas=most
the volume of a gas may be decreased by increasing the pressure on the gas compressibility
a gas will increase its volume when heated expansivity
movement of a gas when introduced into a container diffusibility
the volume of a gas is equal to the volume of the container
force per unit area pressure
where do gases exert pressure? on the walls of their containers
commonly measured form of presssure? atmosphere
what can be used to measure atmospheric pressure? mercury barometer
what does 1 atmosphere (atm) equal (2 things) 760 mm Hg (mercury) OR 760 torr
relationship between the volume of a given quantity of a gas and its pressure is expressed by which gas law? Boyle's Law
in Boyle's law, the volume occupied by a gas and the pressure it exerts (when temperature is constant) have a ____ relationship inverse
p1v1=p2v2 (where T is constant) boyle's law
practical example of boyle's law breathing
relationship btw volume and temperature is expressed by this gas law charles' law
the volume of a fixed quantity of gas is _____ proportional to its Kelvin temperature if the pressure remains constant directly
v1/t1=v2/t2 charles' law
Charles' law, temp is expressed in what? Kelvin
Kelvin= degrees celcius + 273
practical example of charles' law incubator
relationship btw pressure exerted by a gas and its temperature gay-lussac's law
according to gay lussac's law, as the temp of a gas increases, the pressure increases, and vice versa, if the volume remains constant. it is _____ proportional directly
p1/t1=p2/t2 gay lussac's law
practical example of gay lussac's law autoclave
transition from liquid to gas evaporation
transition from gas to liquid condensation
when two opposing rates are equal equilibrium
the pressure exerted by a vapor when it s in equilibrium with its liquid equilibrium vapor pressure
as temperature increases, the vapor pressure of a liquid ____ increases
the rapid passage of liquid particles to the vapor state by forming bubbles boiling
a liquid boils at a temperature known as the boiling point
the boiling point at 1 atmosphere pressure normal boiling point
two types of matter pure substances AND mixtures
two types of pure substances elements and compounds
substances which cannot be decomposed by further chemical means elements
substances composed of to or more elements chemically united in a definite proportion by mass compound
two or more nonchemically united substances that are in no definite proportion by mass mixtures
how many elements? 117
most abundant element on earth oxygen
second most abundant element on earth, forms 1/4 of the earth's crust silicon
most abundant element in the universe and second most hydrogen, helium
states that when two or more elements combine they always combine in a fixed or definite proportion by mass law of definite proportions
how can compounds be decomposed? chemical changes
4 primary types of inorganic compounds oxides, acids, bases, salts
how can mixtures be decomposed physical changes
mixtures that are characterized by uniform properties throughout their contents, uniform composition homogeneous
mixtures that do not have uniform properties, or composition throughout heterogeneous
the study of the nature of matter and the changes that matter undergoes chemistry
anything that possesses mass and occupies space matter
what is the nature of matter, 3 things: 1) composition of matter, 2) forces holding it together, 3) its observable properties
does not cause a change in the chemical composition of a material physical change
those changes that result in the formation of new substances chemical change
the ability to do work energy
energy of motion kinetic energy
stored energy potential energy
the study of compounds usually containing elements other than carbon inorganic chemistry
the study of certain carbon compounds organic chemistry
the study of compounds produced by living organisms biochemistry
the study of those types of matter and changes in matter related to the disinfection/preservation of human remains embalming chemistry
the study of those physical/chemical changes in body due to death thanatochemistry
the standard set of units used by all scientists international system of units/metric system/SI units
standard unit of length meter (m)
standard unit of volume liter (L)
standard unit of mass kilogram (kg)
standard unit of heat calorie (cal)
the quantity of heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius at 15 degrees Celsius calorie
1 Cal= 1000 kcal = 1000 cal
positive ion cation
negative ion anion
is Cl2 a polar or nonpolar bond? nonpolar
is HF polar or nonpolar bond? polar
is hydrogen considered a metal or a nonmetal? nonmetal
order of exponential expression and symbols: Mega (M 10^9), Kilo (k 10^6), deci (d 10^-1), centi (c 10^-2), milli (m 10^-3), micro (u 10^-6), nano (n 10^-9)
metal bonding to a nonmetal is an example of a ____ bond ionic
metal bonding to a metal or a non-metal bonding to a non-metal are examples of ______ bonds covalent
group IA on periodic table (3 names) alkali metals, alkali elements, reactive metals
group 2A on the periodic table alkaline earth metals
part of group B on periodic table removed from rest of periodic table called: (top period is:) (bottom period is:) rare earth metals. top period is lanthanide series, bottom is actinide series
elements to the left of the heavy line are metals
elements to the right of the heavy line are nonmetals
isotopes of hydrogen (3) protium, deuterium and tritium
isotope of hydrogen that makes up heavy water deuterium
isotope of hydrogen that is radioactive tritium
Created by: amyziolkowski



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