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biochem chp 16 II

Stack #47124

QuestionAnswer
what is the function of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and where does it fit into glycolysis conversion of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate into 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate (1,3BPG) it takes place in two steps the oxidation of the aldehyde to a carboxylic acid by NAD+ and the joining of the carboxylic acid to fotm the acyl phosphate. reaction 6
describe the 3 steps that glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase goes through in order to form 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate step 1 the aldehyde substrate reacts with the sulfhydral group on cystine 149 to form a hemithioacetal step 2 transfer of a hydride ion to NAD in step 3 an orthophosphate attacks the thioester to form 1,3BPG and free the cystine residue pg 434
what is the function of phosphoglycerate kinase and where does it fit into glycolysis catalyze the transfer of the acyl phosphoryl group from 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate to adp to form atp. reaction 7
describe the structure of 3-phosphoglycerate 3 carbon chain acetate on carbon 1 a hydroxyl on carbon 2 and a phosphate attached to carbon 3
what is the function of phosphoglycerate mutase and where does it fit into glycolysis uses a catalytic amount of 2,3-bisphosphoglycate to causes a intermolecular shift in 3-phosphoglycerate to form 2-phosphoglycerate. reaction 8
describe the structure of 2-phosphoglycerate 3 carbon chain with an acetate in position 1 a phosphate attached to carbon 2 and a hydroxyl group on carbon 3
what is the function of enolace and where does it fit into glycolysis dehydration of 2-phosphoglycerate to form the enol phospenolpyruvate elevating the transfer potential because an enol phosphate has a higher transfer potential than the phosphate ester. reaction 9
describe the structure of phosphenolpyruvate a negative headless cheerleader with a phosphate stuck to its butt
what is the function of pyruvate kinase and where does it fit in glycolysis catalyzes the reaction that results in the donation of the phosphoryl group from phosphenylpyruvate to adp to form atp and the ketone pyruvate. reaction 10
describe the structure of pyruvate negative headless cheerleader standing on a ball with a methyl group stuck in its butt
which reactions are non-reversible reactions and as such serve as control points for glycolysis 1 hexokinase, 3 phosphofructokinase, and 10 pyruvate kinase
how many molecules of atp are released as a result of glycolysis how many nadh and how many pyruvate 2 of each
how is nad+ regenerated for use in glycolysis durring the metabolism of pyruvate the nadh produce durring reaction 6 is converted back into nad which is derived from nacin
what is the function of pyruvate decarboxylase and where does it fit into glycolysis along with the co-enzymevthiamine pyrophosphate it decarboxylates pyruvate to form acetaldehyde and co2 followed by a second step to produce ehanol. it is the first step after glycolysis in yeast toward ethanol
describe the structure of acetaldehyde two carbon chain with a aldehyde on carbon 1
what is the function of alcohol dehydrogenase and where does it fit into glycolysis reduces acetaldehyde to ethanol using nadh in the process regenerating nad+ for use in glycolysis
how does alcohol dehydrogenase function the active site contains a zn ion coordinated to the sulfur atoms of two cystines and the nitrogen atom of a histadine. this zn ion polarizes the carbonyl group to fravor the transfer of a h from nadh
what are the net results of glucose after going through fermentation 2 atp 2 co2 2 ethanol 2 h2o
what is the function of lactate dehydrogenase and where does it fit into glycolysis reduces pyruvate into lactate using nadh and in the process regenerating nad+
describe the structure of lactate 3 carbon chain acetate on carbon 1 hydroxyl group on carbon 2 nothing on carbon 3
how does fructose enter into glycolysis the fructose 1-phosphate pathway in the liver. it is phosphorlated to fructose 1-phosphate by fructokinase and is then split into glyceraldehyde and dihydroxyacetone phosphate.usualy in adipose tissue
how does galactose enter inot glycolysis it is converted into glucose 6-phosphate in four steps pg 441
organism that has more than two chromosome sets all derived from the same species this would the organism from interbreding but not from producing fertile offspring
allopolyploid created when two diffrent species interbreed and produce a steril hybrid which can reproduce asexualy to produce asexualy to produce offspring which are fertile with each other
what is adaptive radiation evolution of diversly adapted species from a common ancestor upon introduction to new enviromental opprotunities and challenges
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