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biochem chp 16

Stack #46963

glycolysis an anaerobic sequence of reactions tha metabolize one molecule of glucose to two molecules of pyruvate
glucogenesis sequence of anaerobic reactions in which glucose is synthsized from noncarbohydrate percursors
why would pyruvate be fermented in to lactate or ethanol instead of being completly oxidized in the citric acid cycle and electron transport chain. in order to reduce the concentration of pyruvate under anaerobic conditions so that glycolysis is able to move forward.
chap 14 but why does atp have a high phosphoryl tranfer potential in comparison to adp and amp adp has greater resonance stability at the normal ph of body fluids 7 the triphospate unit of atp carries 4 negative charges which because of close proximity they repel each other and water can bind more effectivly to adp
obligate anaerobes organisms that cannot survive in the presence of o
facultative anaerobes orginisms that can function in the presence or absence of o
list the three enzymes responible for the three reactions that take place in the first stage of glycolysis hexokinase, phosphoglucose isomerase, phosphofructokinase.
list the two enzymes responsible for the two reactions in the second stage of glycolysis aldolase, triose phosphate isomerase
list the five enzymes responsible for the five reactions that take place in the third stage of glycolysis. glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase, phosphoglycerate mutase, enolase, pyruvate kinase.
what is the function of hexokinase give the starting and end products of the reaction. where does it fit into glycogenesis hexokinase uses atp to phosphorlate glucose as it diffuses into the cell so that it becomes trapped within the cell. reaction 1
describe the structure of glucose five membered ring with the number 1 position occupied by o positions 2, 3 and 5 have hydroxy groups attached in the down position 4 has a hydroxy group in the up and position 6 has a methoxy group in the up
describe the structure of glucose 6-phosphate (G-6P) five membered ring with o in position 1 positions 2,3,5 have hydroxy groups in the down position 4 has a hydroxy group in the up and position 6 has a methoxy group with a phosphate attached
kinase an enzyme that catalyze the transfer of a phosphoryl grpup from atp require a divalent metal ion
describe the conformational changes that take place when glucose binds to hexokinase hexokinase has two lobes which move together when glucose binds encircling the molecule in nonpolar protine except the hydroxyl on carbon 6 which accepts the phosporyl if this conformation didmt happen h2o could act as the subtrate and act as an atpase
what is the function of phosphoglucose isomerase. where does it fit into glycogenesis isomeration of the aldose glucose 6-phosphate to the ketose fructose 6-phosphate. reaction 2
describe the structure of glucose 6-phosphate furan ring with o in position 1 position 2 has a methoxy up and a hydroxyl down position 3 hydrxyl up position 4 hydroxyl down position 5 methoxy with a phosphoryl group up
what is the function of phosphofructokinase. where does it fit into glycogenesis uses one atp in the phosphorylation of fructose 6-phosphate to create 1,6-bisphosphate one of three reactions that regulate glycolysis. reaction 3
describe the structure of 1,6-bisphosphate fruan ring with phosphorylated methoxy groups in positions 2 and 5 both up on position 2 there is also a hydroxyl group down on positions 3 and 4 hydroxyl groups up and down respectivly.
what is the function of aldose? where does it fit into glycogenesis splits fructose 1,6-bisphosphate into glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GAP) and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP). reaction 4
describe the structure of dihydroxyacetone (DHAP) three carbon chain with a phosphate attached to carbon 1 a double bonded o on carbon 2 and a hydroxyl group on carbon 3.
describe the structure of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GAP) three carbon chain with an aldehyde as carbon 1 a hydroxyl group attached to carbon 2 and a phosphate attached to carbon 3
what is the purpose of triose phosphate isomerase (TIM) and where does it fit into glycogenesis isomerize dihydroxyacetone phosphate into glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate so that it can continue on the path of glycolysis. reaction 5
how does triose phosphate isomerase transform dihydroxyacetone phosphate into glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate procedes through an enediol intermediate. glutamate 165 serves as an acid base catalyst pulling a hydrogen from carbon 1 and transfering it to carbon 2 histadine 95 donates a proton to carbon 2 to stabalize the negative charge page 432
what are some charateristics of tim it is a kinetically perfect enzyme and it wuppresses a side reaction the decomposition of the enediol intermediate by preventing it from leaving the enzine by using a loop of ten residues as a lid until the isomerization is complete.
list the ten enzymes involved in glycolysis in order of action hexokinase, phosphoglucose isomerase, phosphofructokinase, aldolase, triose phosphate isomerase, gluceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphoglucerate kinase, phosphoglycerate mutase, enolase and pyruvate kinase
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