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Chem 2 ch 14

Chapter 14

QuestionAnswer
Equilibrium a state in which there are no observable changes as time goes by.
Chemical Equilibrium a state in which the rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal. The concentrations of the reactants and products remain constant.
Physical Equilibrium equilibrium in which only physical properties change
equilibrium constant K. A number equal to the ratio of the equilibrium concentrations of products to the equilibrium concentrations of reactants, each raised to the power of its stociometric coefficient
Law of the mass action for a reversible reaction at quilibrium and a constant temperature, a certain ratio of reactants and product concentrations has a constant value, k (the equilibrium constant)
K>>1 lies to the right, favors products (greater then 10)
K<<1 lies to the left, favors reactants (less then 0.1)
Homogeneous equilibrium all reacting species are in the same phase
Δn moles of gaseous products-moles of gaseous reactants= (c+d)-(a+b)
Heterogeneous equilibrium reactions in which reactants and products are in different phases.
Rules for writing equilibrium constant 1. an equation for a reversal reaction is written in the opposite direction the equilibrium constant becomes the reciprocal of the original equilibrium constant 2. the value k also depends on how the equilibrium is balanced.
reaction quotient is calculated bu substituting the initial concentrations of the reactants and products into the equilibrium constant Kc expression
Qc > Kc system proceeds from the right to left to reach equilibrium
Qc = Kc the system is at equilibrium
Qc < Kc system proceeds from left to right to reach equilibrium
Le Chatelier's Principles if an external stress is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system adjusts in such a way that the stress is partially offset as the system reaches a new equilibrium position
variable that can be controlled experimentally concentration, pressure, volume, and temperature
concentrations of gases are greatly affected by: changes in pressure
the greater the pressure the ______ the volume smaller
What is the only thing that can affect the equilibrium constant temperature
increasing the concentrations of products shifts the equilibrium to the left
decreasing concentration of products shifts the equilibrium to the right
increasing the concentration of reactants shifts the equilibrium to the right
decreasing the concentration of reactants shifts the equilibrium to the left
increasing pressure shifts the equilibrium to side with the fewest moles of gas
decreasing pressure shifts the equilibrium to the side with the most moles of gas
increasing volume shifts the equilibrium to the side with the most moles of gas
decreasing volume shifts the equilibrium to the side with the fewest moles of gas
temperature increases favor endothermic reactions
temperature decreases favor exothermic reactions
Adding a catalyst does not alter the equilibrium constant, not does it shift the position of an equilibrium system.
If a reaction can be expressed as the sum of two or more reactions, the equilibrium constant for the overall reaction is given by what? equilibrium constants of the individual reactions.
When the equation for a reversible reaction is written in the opposite direction, the equilibrium constant becomes what? the reciprocal of the original equilibrium constant.
The concentrations of the reacting species in the condensed phase are expressed in? M
the concentrations of the reacting species in the gaseous phase are expressed in? M or atm
Are the concentrations of pure solids and liquids expressed in the equilibrium constant expression? No
The equilibrium constant in what kind of quantity? dimensionless
Kc= Kf/kr
ICE Initial, change, equilibrium
increasing temp k decreases in an exothermic reaction and K increases in an endothermic reaction
decreasing temp k increases in an exothermic reaction and K decreases in an endothermic reaction
According to Le Chatelier's Principle adding a catalyst does what? 1. Doesn't change the K 2. doesn't shift the position of an equilibrium system 3. system will reach equilibrium sooner.
List the four factors that can shift the position of equilibrium. Which is the only one that can alter the value of the equilibrium constant? Concentration, temperature, pressure, volume. Temperature i
If a reaction can be expressed as the sum of two or more reactions, the equilibrium constant for the overall reaction is given by what? equilibrium constants of the individual reactions.
When the equation for a reversible reaction is written in the opposite direction, the equilibrium constant becomes what? the reciprocal of the original equilibrium constant.
The concentrations of the reacting species in the condensed phase are expressed in? M
the concentrations of the reacting species in the gaseous phase are expressed in? M or atm
Are the concentrations of pure solids and liquids expressed in the equilibrium constant expression? No
The equilibrium constant in what kind of quantity? dimensionless
Kc= Kf/kr
ICE Initial, change, equilibrium
increasing temp k decreases in an exothermic reaction and K increases in an endothermic reaction
decreasing temp k increases in an exothermic reaction and K decreases in an endothermic reaction
According to Le Chatelier's Principle adding a catalyst does what? 1. Doesn't change the K 2. doesn't shift the position of an equilibrium system 3. system will reach equilibrium sooner.
1. List the four factors that can shift the position of equilibrium. 2. Which is the only one that can alter the value of the equilibrium constant? !.Concentration, temperature, pressure, volume. 2. Temperature
Created by: majormayhem