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Clin.Chem 2

vocabulary

QuestionAnswer
chlelator causing the joining of an ion (ex. metal) and a ring structured chemical.
Cofactor a nonprotein molecule that may be necessary for enzyme activity.
Essential element an element that is absolutely necessary for life. Deficinecy or absence of the element will cause a severe alteration of function and /or eventually lead to death.
Metalloenzyme trace element associated with an enzyme as an essential component or cofactor.
Metalloprotein trace element associated with a protein as an essential component or cofactor.
TIBC Total iron-binding capacity. an estimate of serum trasferrin levels; obtained by measuring the toatl iron binding capability of a patient's serum. Since transferrin represents most of the iron-binding capacity of serum, TIBC is a good serun transfer. lvl
Trace element an element that occurs in biological systems at concentrations of mg/kg amts. or less per million. Typically the daily req'mnt of such an element is a few milligrams/daily
Transferrin saturation percent of transferrin molecules that have orion bound. A ration of serum iron (actual iron in the serumP and serum transferrin or TIBC(potential quantity of iron that can be found). Also percent saturation.
Ultratrace element present in tissues at concentration of mg/kg amts. or less (parts per billion) and has extremely low daily req'mnts (usuall _1 mg).
Drug absorption uptake of a drug in the gastrointestinal tract ino the body.
Drug disposition the way in which the body handles a foreign compopund, the drug. The mechanisms used by the body to handle a drug can be explained in terms of four general processes: absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion.
Drug distribution the circulation and diffusion of a drug into the interstitial and intracellular spaces.
Drug elimination clearance of a drug from the body by a variety of mechanisms.
peak drug level the time after administration until a drug reaches peak concnetration in the body. A rule of thumb suggests that , for peak drug levels, the specimen should be collected 1 hour after the dose is administered.
Pharmacokinetics characterization, mathematically of the disposition of a drug over time in order to better understand and interpret blood levels and to effectively adhust dosage and amount and interval for best therapeutic results with minimal toxic effects.
Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) the determination of serum drug levels in order to produce a desirable effect.
Trough drug level the lowest concentration of drug obtained in the blood. Trough levels should be drawn immediately before the next dose.
dose-response relationship comparision of the dose of a substance (i.e., drug or chemical) with its potential pathologic effects. Dose-response relationship implies that there will be an increase in toxic response with an increased dose.
drugs of abuse drugs used illegally or inappropriately; many drugs have the potential for abuse.
poison any substance tha causes a harmful effect upon exposure.
TD50 dose of a drug that would be predicted to produce a toxic response in 50% of the population.
Toxicology the study of poisons, their detection, and the treatment of the conditions produc ed by them.
CHELATOR causing the joining of an ion (ie-metal) and a ring structured chemical.
COFACTOR a nonprotein molecule that may be necessary for enzyme activity.
ESSENTIAL ELEMENT an elememt that is absolutely necessary for life. Deficiency or absence of the element will cause a severe alteration of function and/or eventually lead to death.
METALLOENZYME trace element associated with a protein as an essential component or cofactor.
TOTAL IRON-BINDING CAPACITY (TIBC) an estimate of serum transferrin levels; obtained by measuring the total iron binding capability of a patient's serum. Since transferrin represents most of the iron-binding capacity of serum, TIBC is generally a good estimate of serum transferrin lvls.
TRACE ELEMENT an element that occurs in biological systems at concentration of mg/kg amts. or less (parts per million).
TRANSFERRIN SATURATION percent of transferrin molecules that have iron bound. A ratio of serum iron (actual iron in the serum) and serum transferrin or TIBC (potential quantity of iron that can be bound). Also percent saturation.
ULTRATRACE ELEMENT present in tissues at concentrations of mg/kg amts. or less (parts per billion) and has extremely low daily req'mnts (usually 1mg).
DRUG ABSORPTION uptake of a drug in the gastrointestinal tract into the body.
DRUG DISPOSITION the way in which the body handles a foreign compound, the drug. The mechanisms used by the body to handle a drug can be explained in terms of 4 general processes: absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion.
DRUG DISTRIBUTION the circulation and diffusion of a drug into the interstitial and intercellular spaces.
DRUG ELIMINATION clearance of a drug from the body by a variety of mechanisms.
PEAK DRUG LEVEL the time after administration until a drug reaches peak concentration in the body. peak drug lvl specimens should be collected 1 hr after the dose is administered.
PHARMACOKINETICS characterization, mathematically of the disposition of a drug over time in order to better understand and interpret blood levels and to effectively adjust dosage amt. and interval for best therapeutic results with minimal toxic effects.
THERAPEUTIC DRUG MONITORING (TDM) the determination of serum drug lvls. in order to produce a desirable effect.
THERAPEUTIC RANGE concentration range of a drug that is beneficial to the patient w/out being toxic.
TROUGH DRUG LEVEL the lowest concnetration fo drug obtained in the blood. Trough lvls. should be drawn immediately before the next dose.
DOSE-RESPONSE RELATIONSHIP Comparison of the dose of a substance with its potential pathologic effects. Dose response relationship implies that there will be an increase in toxic response with an increased dose.
Bisphosphonates class of medications to treat osteoporosis.
Bone turnover coupled process that takes place throughout life in bone with bone formation and bone resorption.
Cortical bone type of bone that is very strong in the axial and cross-sectional dimensions, very well suited to the needs of the long bones.
Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) x-ray procedure that measures bone mineral density by measuring grams of calcium per square centimeter of cross-sectional area of bone (g/cm2).
Hypercalcemia elevated levels of calcium in the blood.
Hypocalcemia decreased levels of calcium.
Lithium an element of the alkali metal group, atomic no. 3, atomic weight 6.941. Many salts have clinical applications.
Osteoblast cells that build bone when triggered by the appropriate hormonal signals.
Osteoclast cells that causes reabsorption of bone when triggered by the appropriate hormonal signals.
Osteomalacia condition resulting from a deficiency of vitamin D. Deficiency of vitamin D causes bones to be soft and brittle. It is the adult form of rickets.
Osteoporosis a disease involving the gradual loss of bone mass resulting in a less dense and weak skeleton.
Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) a hormone that can be produced by tumors, especially of the squamous cell type; massive overproduction can lead to hypercalcemia and other manifestations of hyperparathyroidism.
Rickets the classic vitamin D deficiency disease of children. Itmay be nutritional or metabolic in origin.
Trabecular bone bone in which the spicules or trabeculae form a three-dimensional latticework (cancellus), with the interstices filled with embryonal connective tissue or bone marrow.
Vitamin D steroid vitamin which promotes the intestinal absorption and metabolism of calcium and phosphorus.
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) hormone synthesized as a prohormone containing 115 amino acids. The active form of the hormone contains 84 amino acids and is secreted by the chief cells of the parathyroid glands.
Drugs of abuse drugs used illegally or inappropriately; many drugs have the potential for abuse.
Poison any substance that causes a harmful effect upon exposure.
TD50 dose of a drug that would be predicted to produce a toxic response in 50% of the population.
Toxicology the study of poisons, their actions, their detection, and the treatment of the conditions produced by them.
Created by: nizhoni