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biochem chp 15

Stack #46753

what is gradualism it exerted a strong influence on darwins thinking the idea that profound change can take place through the cummulitave effect of slow but continuous process (hutton and lyell
actual father of evolution but had the inheritance of acquired traits as the mechanism otherwise known as use and disuse lamarck
what are the two major points of darwins orgin of species 1. many species of organisms presently inhabiting earth are desendants of ancestral species that were diffrent form the modern species 2. the mechanism to the process is natural selection
what is natural selection the process in which populations can change over generations if individuals that posess certain heritable traits leave more offspring than other individuals
what is evolutionary adaptation an accumulation of inherited charateristics that enchance an organisms ability to survive and reproduce in a specific enviroment
a change over time in the genetic composition of a population evolution
hypothesis that each strata corosponds in time to a catastrophe that destroyed many of the species living there at the time catastrophism
the idea that tie same geologic processes from gradualism are operating today as in the past and at the same rate uniformitarianism
what did darwin mean when he used the phrase decent with modification as the descendents of an ancestral organism spilled into various habitats over millions of years they accumulated diverse modifications that fit them to specific ways of life
two main ideas darwin developed in the orgin of species 1. evolution explains lifes unity and diversity 2. natural selection is a cause of adaptive evolution
process of selecting and breeding individuals with desired traits atrifical selection
similarity resulting from common ancestry homology
remnants of structures that may have served important functions in the organisms ancestors vestigal organs
the geographic distribution of species biogeography
species which is found only in a specific area endemic
what factors produce the variation that makes evolution possible mutation and sexual recombination
waht is the primary mechanism of adaptive evolution natural selection
what factors can alter a populations genetic composition natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow
what is the diffrence between microevolution and macroevolution microevolution is change in the makeup of a population from generation to generation and macroevolution is the origination of new taxonomic groups (new abilities or features)
why are populations important as the units of evolution populations are the only units in which change in heritable variation from generation to generation can be observed
what causes microevolution small population size, migration, net mutation, non random mating, natural selection
what causes the variation that makes evolution possible sexual recombination and mutation
why are mutations more rapid in microorganisms they have a more rapid rate of reproduction
why id sexual recombination more important than mutations in terms of evolution sexual recombination is the way in which these mutations are spread throughout the community without it the mutation would die with the organism in which it occured
what are the three factors that can alter a populations genetic composition genetic drift, gene flow, and natural selection
how does natural selection work by accumulating and maintaining favorable genotypes in a population fitting them to their new enviroment increasing the frequency of certain genotypes
why does natural selection have no efect on neutral variation natural selection selects only aginst phenotyipc traits that give an organism an advantage or puts them at a disadvantage
why cant natural selection produce perfect organisms natural selection can only select among traits that already exist and when helpful modifications occur they are usually a compromise
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