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Science Unit D Ch1

Chapter 1 Vocabulary

crust The Earth's outermost layer.
mantle The layer directly beneath the Earth's crust.
core The Earth's innermost layer.
lithosphere The cool, solid portion of Earth that includes all of the crust and part of the upper mantle.
asthenosphere A zone of partially melted rock in the upper mantle of the Earth.
plate tectonics The theory scientists use to explain the movement of plates on the Earth's surface.
divergent boundary A boundary where crustal plates move away from each other.
convergent boundary A boundary where crustal plates collide with each other.
transform fault boundary A boundary where crustal plates grind past each other.
mid-ocean ridge The place where plates of the Earth's crust along the ocean floor are bing split apart and molten rock pushes up to form new ocean floor and a mountain range.
rift A deep ocean valley formed where two crustal plates move apart.
sea-floor spreading A process in which magma is slowly pushed up through cracks in a rift and then cools to form new sea floor.
earthquake The sudden movement of rock along a fault which releases energy vibrations.
focus The point in the Earth's crust where the first major movement of an earthquake fault occurs.
epicenter The point on the Earth's surface directly above the focus of an earthquake.
P wave A primary wave, or "push-pull" wave of released energy in the Earth's surface that causes a back-and-forth vibration in the same direction that the wave moves.
S wave A slower kind of energy wave released by an earthquake that causes vibrations at right angles to the waves direction of travel.
surface wave An energy wave from an earthquake that travels only at the surface and moves less quickly than P waves and S waves but makes the ground roll and sway.
Richter scale A scale that measures the amount of energy released during an earthquake.
volcano A mountain that may form around an opening in the Earth's surface where an eruption of molten rock occurs.
Created by: mquay