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BMB Test 1

Chapters 1 and 2

Intensive Independent of quantity -melting point -boiling point -specific gravity -density
Extensive Dependent of quantity -mass -volume
Pure element N2 Compound O2
Mixture air seawater coffee
Heterogeneous Mixture not evenly distributed non-uniform composition
error guesstimation systematic error: near average random error: scattered points -not close
accurate very close to the actual value
precise systematic error
US units for mass grams
energy capacity to do work
3 phases of matter solid, liquid, gases
Scientific Method systematic approach to acquiring information observation, question, hypothesis, experiment, theory, law
Matter anything that has mass and occupies space
Physical Property no change in composition or identity -melting point -boiling point
Chemical Property change in composition -seen only through chemical reaction
Physical Change produces a recognizable change in the appearance but no change in composition or identity -snow, rain, humidity
Chemical Reaction process of rearranging, removing, replacing, or adding atoms to produce new substances -photosynthesis
Density g/mL volume displacement (lab) water = 1.00 g/mL
Specific Gravity no units -comparing to the density of water
Atom -basic unit of an element -smallest unit of an element that retains chemical properties of element
Daltons Theory 1.all matter consists of tiny particles called atoms 2.atom cannot be created, destroyed, divided in to any other type of atom -nuclear fission: spliting of an atom -nuclear fusion: sun 3.atoms of any one element have identical properties-ISOTOPE
Dalton's Theory continued 4.atoms of different elements have different properties 5.atoms of different elements combine in simple whole-number ratios to produce compounds -stable aggregates of atoms 6.chemical changes will involve joining, separating, or rearranging atoms
Daltons Theory -incorrect theory 2 and 3 are false
Properties of Metals POSITIVE CHARGE shiny ductile malleable -good conductors of heat and electricity
Properties of non-metals NEGATIVE CHARGE dull brittle poor conductors of heat and electricity -good insulators
Properties of mettaloids better conductors than non-metals -not as good as metals used as semiconductors and insulators
Electron Affinity gains electrons -gives off energy -increase across a period -decrease down a group
Ionization Energy wants to become positively charged -gives off energy -loses electrons -increase across a period -decrease down a group
Standard unit for length meter (m)
Celsius C=Tf-32/1.8
Fahrenheit F=1.8(Tc)+32
Kelvin K=Tc +273
Alkaline Metals Group 1A conduct electricity
Alkaline-earth metals normally found in rocks
Noble Gases inner, colorless gases
Subatomic Particles first discovered with cathode ray tube -evidence of protons and neutrons
Thomson Model particles are spread out evenly through the entire sphere
Geiger/Ritherford Model dense, positively charged nucleus gold foil experiment
Gold Foil Experiment shoot radio-active particles through gold-foil -some shot back at him
Atomic Number number of protons
Mass Number number of protons and neutrons
Isotope different mass numbers (dif. neutrons)
Thallium Stress test can test the stress in a heart by looking at the light that glows
calculate the atomic mass of naturally occuring chlorine if 75.77% of chlorine atoms are chlorine-35 and 24.23% of chlorine atomes are chlorine-37. *convert percentages to decimal fraction 0.7577 chlorine-35 0.2432 chlorine-37 *multiply decimal fraction by the mass of that isotope 0.7577 x 35.00 amu = 26.52 amu 0.2432x37.00amu=8.965amu *sum these partial weights 26.52+8.965=35.49 amu
electron energy level electrons arranged in specific energy levels n= 1 n=2 n=3
Sub level contains electrons with same energy s,p,d,f
Orbitals 3-D space around nucleus where electrons are most likely found -represents electron density HOLDS TWO ELECTRONS
Octet Rule 8 valence electrons atoms gain, lose or share electrons to attain 8 valence electrons
Ions formed by octet rule metals: for cations -lose valence electrons to achieve octet
Isoelectronic atom of different elements having same electron configuration -same number of electrons
Cation Size cations are smaller than parent atoms more protons than electrons = increase in nuclear charge -extra protons pull electrons closer to nucleus
Anion Size larger than parent atom excess negative charge decreases pull of nucleus on each individual electronic -multiple negative charges larger than mono negative ions
Ionization Energy energy required to remove an electron from an isolated atom
Electron Affinity -energy released when single electrons are added to an atom -indicates ease of anion formation -large electron affinity -atom becomes more stable forming anions
Law summary of a large quantity of information
Hypothesis attempt to explain an observation
Theory hypothesis supported by testing that explains scientific facts
Created by: megstah77