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Level 3 NCEA flsahcards

EN is..... The measure of attraction an atom has for a pair of bonding electrons
IE is... the minimium energy needed to remove an electron from an atom or ion in the gaseous state
AR is... half the distance between the bonded nuclei
EN going across the periodic table... Increases.
EN across the periodic table why... becasue of the increasing number of protons so there is an increasing attration for electrons
IE going across the periodic table... Increases
IE across the periodic table why... becaue of the increasing attraction for electrons which means more energy is requied to remove them
AR going across the periodic table... Decreases
AR across the periodic table why... increasing attraction for electrons pulls the valance shell closer to the nucleus
EN going down the periodic table... decreases
AR going down the periodic table why... decreasing attraction for electrons so valance shell is further away from nucleus
EN going down the periodic table why... increasing sheilding so there is a decrease in the attraction for electrons
IE going down the periodic table... decreases
IE going down the periodic table why... decreasing attraction for electrons so need less energy to remove them
AR going down the periodic table... increases
Cations are what electrons lost
anions are what electrons gained
IR of positive ion Fewer electrons are attracted more strongly to nucleus so IR is smaller than atom
IR of negitive ion More electrons create more repultion betweeen elctrons so IR is bigger than atom
Pure covalent bond EN 0-0.5
Polar covalent bond EN 0.6-1.5
Ionic bond EN 1.6+
Forming anions electrons are added into orbitals of increasing energy
Forming Cations electrons are removed from 4s before 3d
[Ar] 1s2,2s2,2p6,3s2,3p6
Transition metals-Form complex ions Central metal ion surrounded by ligands. Vacant 3d orbitals on t-metal ions accept these loan bonds
Transition metals-Form coloured compounds Electrons in the incomplete 3d orbital absorb specific wave lengths of light energy. The colour seen is the light energy not absorbed
Transition metals-Make good catalysts Vacant orbitals accept electron pairs from molecules. This strains the bonds in the molecules, encouraging reactions to occur
Lower oxidation states are monatomic ions
Higher oxidation states polyatomic ions
T metals lose 4s electrons and then a varying number of unpaired 3d electrons to give varying oxidation states
2 Linear 2,180, symmetrical
Trigonal planar 3, 120, symmetrical
3 Angular bent 3, 120, asymmetrical
Tetrahedral 4, 109, symmetrical
Trigonal pyramidal 4, 107, asymmetrical
4 Angular bent 4,104.5, asymmetrical
Linear 4,109, asymmetrical
Trigonal bipyramidal 5, 90, 120, symmetrical
Seesaw 5, 90, 120, asymmetrical
T-shaped 5, 90, 120, asymmetrical
5 Linear 5, 90, 120, symmetrical
Octahedral 6, 90, symmetrical
Square-based pyramid 6, 90, asymmetrical
Square planar 6, 90, asymmetrical
Polar bond unequally shared electrons between 2 atoms due to different EN
Polar molecule has an uneven spread of charge
Non-polar bond equally shared electrons between 2 identical atoms due to same EN
Non-polar molecule even spread of charge
Intermolecular forces forces within molecules or between ions
Examples of intermolecular forces covalent bonds, ionic bonds
Covalent bonds a strong attraction between atomic nuclei and shared pair of electrons.
Stronger covalent bonds caused by more electrons being involved
Ionic bonding strong EN attraction between cation and anion
Stronger ionic bonds caused by higher charges
Created by: brooke3451