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O. Chem. Chap. 11

Functional Groups

Organic Compounds Contain C, H & sometimes other elements O, N, Halogens, P, S
C always has how many covelant bonds 4 - 4 single, 1 single/1 triple, 2 single/1 double, 2 doubles
Tetrahedral bond angle 109.5
A C atome in a molecule can be bonded to how many other atoms? 2, 3, or 4
Bond angle of C and 2 atoms? Linear 180
Bond angle of C and 3 atoms? Triangular planar 120
Bond angle of C and 4 atoms? Tetrahedral 109.5
C-H bond is polar or nonpolar? Nonpolar
Elecronegativity C-F>C-O>C-N; F>O>N~Cl>C~H
The polarity of a molecule is determined by? Polarity of the bonds AND the symmetry of the molecule
To be polar, a molecule must contain what? At least 1 polar bond AND be assymetrical (different around the center = polar)
Properties of Organic Compounds: Covelant Bonds, Low MP & BP, Flammable, Low solubility in H20 (depend on size & polarity), Weak or Nonelectrolytes
Properties of Inorganic Compounds Ionic &/or Covelant, some very high MP & BP, not flammable, most soluble in H2O, strong or weak electrolytes
Characteristics of Functional Groups: Cmpds within same functional group undergo similar rxns. Organic cmpds classified/identified by their functional group
Alkanes A. Saturated hydrocarbons (no more H) B. All C-C single bonds C. Unreactive except flammable
Hydrocarbon Contains only H & C - HC
Alkenes A. Contain 1+ C=C B. Unsaturated HCs C. More reactive than Alkanes
Alkynes A. Contain 1+ C=_C (triple bond) B. Unsaturated C. Reactive
Alcohols & Ethers contain O - all single bonds. H-O-H or C-O-C
Alcohol Contain OH: C-OH
Ethers Contain C-O-C
Aldehydes & Ketones Contain a Carbonyl group C=O
Aldehyde H-C=O
Ketones Carbonyl group (C=O) between C atoms
Carboxylic Acid Carboxyl group (C=O - OH)
Ester Carboxyl group with -H replaced by a C (C=O - O - C)
Acids & Esters Contain a carboxyl group
Amines Amines are NH3 - H substituted with a C (CH3 - NH2)
Amide Carbonyl Group bonded to a N (C=O - N)
Isomerism Cmpds have same molecular formula but differ in their structural formulas
Structural Isomer Differ in the SEQUENCE of the atoms - as the # of atoms in a molecule increases the # of structural isomers increases
Created by: jap