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Chem 2 Ch 13

Chapter 13

Kinetic energy the energy available because of the motion of the object
thermodynamics the scientific study of interconversion of heat and other forms of energy
reaction rate is the change in the concentration of a reactant or a product with time (M/s).
Rate= Δ[A]/Δ t or -Δ[A]/Δt
rate constant a constant of proportionality between the reaction rate and the concentration of reaction (k)
instantaneous rate rate for specific instance in time
4 factors affecting rates of reaction 1. reactant concentration 2. temperature 3. catalysts 4. surface area
what is the rate of reaction proportional to? concentration of reactants
overall reaction order the sum of the powers to which all reaction concentrations appearing in the rate law are raised. x + y
rate law expressed the relationship of the rate of a reaction to the rate constant and the concentrations of the reactants raised to some powers. RATE = k[A]x[B]y
rate laws are: 1. rate laws are always determined experimentally 2. reaction order is always defined in terms of reactant(not product) concentrations 3. the order of the reaction is not related to the stoichiometric coefficient of the reaction in the balanced equation
first-order reaction a reaction whose rate depends on the reactant concentration raised to the first power. k=rate/[A]
half-life of a first order reaction the time required for the concentration of a reaction to decrease to half of its initial concentration, independent of the initial concentration of the reactant
second-order reaction a reaction whose rate depends on the concentration of one reactant raised to the second power or on the concentration of two different reactants, each raised to the first power. Inversely proportional to the initial reactant concentration
activated complex a temporary species formed by the reactant molecules as a result of the collision before they form the product
the activation energy (Ea) is the minimum amount of energy required to initiate a chemical reaction
reaction mechanism the sequence of elementary steps that lead to the product formation
intermediates are not species that appear in a reaction mechanism but not the overall balanced equation, they are always formed and consumed during the reaction
molecularity of a reaction is the number of molecules reacting in an elementary step
unimolecular reaction elementary step with one molecule
bimolecular reaction elementary step with 2 molecules
termolecular reaction elementary step with 3 molecules
rate-determining step the slowest step in the sequence of steps leading to the product formation
heterogeneous catalyst the reactants and the catalysts are in different phases
homogeneous catalyst the reactant and the catalysts are dispersed in a singe phase, usually liquid
average rate change in the concentration of A/length of time interval
first-order reaction equation Ln [A]t/[A]0=-kt
half-life of first order reaction equation t1/2=o,693/k
second-order reaction equation rate= -Δ[A]/Δt +kt
half-life equation of a second order reaction t1/2= 1/k[A]o
zero-order reaction one in which the rate does not depend on the concentration of reactants
Created by: majormayhem