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believed all matter was composed of 4 elements: earth, air, fire, and water Greeks (400 B.C.)
tried to turn cheap medals into gold Alchemists (400 B.C. - 1600 A.D.)
was the first chemist to perform truly quantitative experiments Boyl (1600s)
discovered oxygen Priestly (1700)
is often called the father of modern chemistry. Lavosier (1700s)
discovered the law of conversation of mass which says that matter is neither created nor destroyed Lavosier (1700s)
discovered the law of definite proportion Proust (1700s)
the law of definite proportion a compound has a constant composition
discovered the law of multiple proportions Dalton (1700s)
when Dalton's Atomic Theory was created 1808
1st point of Dalton's Atomic Theory all elements are composed of atoms which are indivisible and indistinctible particles
2nd point of Dalton's Atomic Theory atoms of the same element are identical. The atoms of any one element are different from those of any other.
3rd point of Dalton's Atomic Theory compounds are found by the joining of atoms of different elements
4th point of Dalton's Atomic Theory chemical reactions occur when atoms are separated, joined, or rearranged
did gas experiments which have chemists the key for determining chemical formulas Gay-Lussac (1800s)
added large amounts of electrical energy to small quantities of gases in tubes J.J. Thomson
tubes where large amounts of electrical energy to small gases were in cathode-ray tubes
showed that cathode-rays are attracted to metal plates that have a positive electrical charge J.J. Thomson
believed that cathode-rays were actually a stream of negatively charged particles which he called electrons J. J. Thomson
a stream of negatively charged particles electrons
determined the change-to-mass ratio of an electron J.J. Thomson
discovered the electron J.J. Thomson
developed the plum pudding model of the atom J.J. Thomson
discovered the charge on an electron Millikan
calculated the mass of the electron to be 1/1840 the mass of a hydrogen atom Millikan
student of Thomson Rutherford
discovered protons Rutherford
developed the nuclear model of the atom Rutherford
predicted the existence of neutrons Rutherford
has virtually the same mass as the proton but no charge neutrons
have a positive charge equal in magnitude to the electron's negative charge protons
is the number of protons in an atom atomic number
z atomic number
each element has a unique _____ atomic number
is the number of electrons in a neutral atom atomic number
sum of the protons and neutrons mass number
a mass number
mass of an atom mass number
subtract the atomic number from it and you get the number of neutrons in the atom mass number
atoms with the same # of protons but different # of neutrons isotopes
most are produced artificially isotopes
most do not exist naturally isotopes
most common isotope of hydrogen hydrogen-1 or hydrogen
hydrogen-2 deuterium
hydrogen-3 tritium
the smallest electrically neutral unit of a substance that still has the properties of the substance molecule
are made up of two or more atoms bonded together molecule
examples of molecules O2, O3, CH4, H2O, CO2
compounds composed of molecules molecular compounds
tend to have low melting points and boiling points molecular compounds
exist as gases or liquids at room temperature molecular compounds
most are compounds of atoms of two or more nonmetals molecular compounds
seven diatomic elements hydrogen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, oxygen, nitrogen
color of chlorine green
color of bromine reddish brown
color of iodine violet
are the "shorthand" that chemists use to describe compounds chemical formulas
represent the combination of a substance chemical formulas
consist of chemical symbol and subscripts chemical formulas
represent the elements present in the substance chemical symbols
represent the ration of elements present subscripts
3 types of chemical formulas empirical, molecular and structural
represents the simplest ratio in which the atoms combine empirical
its subscripts are reduced empirical
represents the actual ratio in which the atoms combine molecular
gives the total # of atoms of each element present in the molecule molecular
is sometimes also the empirical formula molecular
shows the way atoms are joined together in a molecule structural
are atoms or groups of atoms that have a positive or negative charge ions
tend to form positive ions by losing one or more electrons metallic elements
tend to form negative ions by gaining one or more electrons ions
any atom or group of atoms that has a positive charge cation
has more protons than electrons cation
any atom or group of atoms that has a negative charge anion
has more electrons than protons anion
its name ends in -ide, ite, or ate anion
tightly bound group of atoms that behave as a unit and carries a charge polyatomic ion
ionic compound salt
composed of cations and anions ionic compounds
are electrically neutral ionic compounds
their total + charge = their total - charge ionic compounds
usually solids at room temperature ionic compounds
most are composed of metals and nonmetals ionic compounds
elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number periodic table
elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number
horizontal rows periods
the properties of the elements change as you move across a period
the patterns of properties within a _____ repeats when you move from one ____ to the next period
vertical rows groups or families
the elements in each ____ have similar chemical and physical properties group
group 1A alkali metals
very active metals that form +1 ions when reacted with nonmetals 1A
group 2A alkaline earth metals
form +2 ions when reacted with nonmetals 2A
group 7A halogens
form -ions when reacted with metal 7A
group 8A nobles gases
tend to exist as isolated atoms 8A
do not react readily with other elements 8A
are monatomic 8A
are the representative elements group a
they exhibit a wide range of physical and chemical properties group a
consists of the transition metals and the inner transition metals group b
3 classes of elements metals, nonmetals, metalloids
properties: high electrical conductivity, high luster, ductile, malleable metal
properties: low electrical conductivity, low luster, some are gases, some are brittle solids nonmetals
B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po, At metalloids
name given to the empirical formula of an ionic compound formula unit
shows the lowest whole # ratio of ions formula unit
its total + charge = total - charge formula unit
contain 2 elements binary ionic compounds (type 1)
are composed of 2 different nonmetallic elements binary molecular compounds
binary covalent compounds binary molecular compounds
compounds that produce H+ ions when dissolved in water acids
hydrochloric acid HCl
sulfuric acid H2SO4
nitric acids HNO3
mass is neither created nor destroyed low of conservation of mass
a given compound always contains exactly the same proportion elements law of definite proportion
a law stating that when two elements form a series of compounds, the ratios of masses of the second element that combine with one gram of the first element can always be reduced to small whole numbers law of multiple proportions
the weighted average mass of the atoms in a naturally occurring element atomic weights
equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the same number of particles Avogadro's hypothesis
the "rays" emanating from the negative electrode (cathode) in a partially evacuated tube; a stream of electrons cathode-ray tube
a negatively charged particle that moves around the nucleus of an atom electron
the spontaneous decomposition of a nucleus of an atoms radioactivity
an atom having a dense center of positive charge (the nucleus) with electrons moving around the outside nuclear atom
the small, dense center of positive charge in an atom nucleus
a positively charged particle in an atomic nucleus protons
a particle in the atomic nucleus with mass virtually equal to the proton's but with no charge neutron
atoms of the same element (the same number of protons) with different numbers of neutrons. they have identical atomic numbers but different mass numbers isotopes
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom atomic number
the total number of protons and neutrons in the atomic nucleus of an atom mass number
the force or, more accurately, the energy, that holds two atoms together in a compound chemical bond
a type of bonding in which electrons are shared by atoms covalent bond
a bonded collection of two or more atoms of the same or different elements molecule
the representation of a molecule in which the symbols for the elements are used to indicate the types of atoms present and subscripts are used to show the relative numbers of atoms chemical formula
the representation of a molecule in which the relative positions of the atoms are shown and the bonds are indicated by lines structural formula
a model of a molecule showing the relative sizes of atoms and their relative orientations space-filling model
a molecular model that distorts the sizes of atoms but shows bond relationships clearly ball-and-stick model
an atom or group of atoms that has a net positive or negative charge ion
a positive ion cation
a negative ion anion
the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions ionic bond
a solid containing cations and anions that dissolves in water to have a solution containing the separated ions which are mobile and thus free to conduct electrical current ionic solid (salt)
an ion containing a number of atoms polyatomic ion
a chart showing all the elements arranged in columns with similar chemical properties periodic table
an element that gives up electrons relatively easily and is lustrous, malleable, and a good conductor of heat and electricity metal
an element not exhibiting metallic characteristics. Chemically, a typical nonmetals accepts electrons from a metal. nonmetal
a vertical column of elements having the same valence electron configuration and showing similar properties group (family)
a group 1A Alkali metals
group 2A metals alkaline earth metals
a group 7A element halogens
a group 8A element noble gases
a two-element compound binary compounds
a substance that produces hydrogen ions in solution; a proton donor acid
Created by: md4