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Chemistry Exam One

Chemistry Exam Chapters 1-3

Qualitative Simple descriptions about the characteristics or behavior of nature.
Quantitative Observations to a standard numerical scale.
What is a hypothesis? A tentative interpretation or explanation for an observation. A good hypothesis is one that can be tested to be proved wrong.
How do you test a hypothesis? By preforming an experiment.
What is a scientific law? A summary of observations that combines all past observations into one general statement.
What is the difference between a hypothesis and a theory? A hypothesis is a potential explanation for a single or small number of observations. A theory is a general explanation for the manifestation and behavior of all time.
What is matter and the chemistry of matter? Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass. Chemistry is the study of matter, changes in matter. Energy changes when matter changes.
What is a atom? Fundamental unit of ordinary matter. Building blocks of matter.
What is a molecule? A group of atoms attatched to one another called chemical bonds.
What is the chemistry of atoms and molecules? The study of matter based on behavior of atoms and molecules.
What us energy? Ability/capacity to do work.
What is work? Force applied across a distance.
What are the two types of energy and their definitions? Kinetic- energy of motion Potential- energy of postion or composition.
What is the kinetic energy equation? KE=1/2mv^2
Law of Conservation of Energy? Energy can never be created or destroyed. Energy can be converted from one form to another and it can flow from one object to another, BUT total quantity of energy does not change.
What is temperature? Average kinetic energy of a sample of particles
What is a intramolecular force? A force within the molecule. AKA-Chemical Bond.They are strong and shortrange.
Wgar is a intermolecular force? A Force between different molecules. They are weak and longrange.
Solids? Particles in a solid are packed close together and are relatively fixed in postion.
Gases? In a gas state, the particles have complete freedom from each other. They are constantly flying around, bumping into each other.
Liquids? The particles in a liquid are closely packed, but they have enough energy they are not fixed in place.
What is a pure substance? Only single type of atom or molecule fixed proportions [h2o]
What is the difference between an element and a compound? An element is only 1 type of atom A compound is different types of atoms chemically bound in molecules.
What is a mixture? Multiple types of atoms chemically bound in molecules.
What is the difference between heterogeneous and homogenous? Hetero: not uniformed distribution. Often difference phases. Visible boundaries. Homo:Uniformed distribution. Solutions and no visible boundaries. Mixing at molecular level.
What are physical properties? Properties we can measure or observe without changing chemical composition. Ex] Color, boiling point.
What are chemical properities? To measure we must change chemical compostion. Ex] Flamability, toxicity.
Physical changes? Dont change chemical composition.
Chemical changes? Results in a change in chemical compostion.
Chemical or Physical? The tendency of iron to rust. Chemical.
Chemical or Physical property? Mercury is a liquid at room temperature. Physical.
Physical or Chemical change? A bowl of water evaporates on a hot day. Physical.
Physical or Chemical change? Bleaching of hair by hydrogen peroxide. Chemical.
Equation of density? D=m/v
To find celsius...when you have fahrenheit? 5/9(f-32)
To find celsius...when you have Kelvin? C=K-273.25
To find Kelvin..when you have Celsius? K=C+273.15
Centi 10^-2
Mili 10^-3
Micro 10^-6
Nano 10^-9
1000mL=__L 1
1000cm^3=___L 1
Extensive Property depends on...? Amount of substance[mass]. Ex]Mass, Volume.
Intensive Property is...? Independent on amount of substance[color]. Ex]Temperature,Density,Pressure.
Solids are ___ dense. Most
Liquids are___dense that solids. less
Gasses are alot ___. less
How many sig figs: 1.5, 1.05, 0.001234, .04456, 1,000 have 1.5: two. 1.05: three .001234: four .04456: four 1,000: one
Sig Figs:Rules for addition & subtraction. Value will have the same amount of decimal places as the number with the least amount of decimal places.
Sig Figs:Rules for multiplication & divison. The value will be the same as that of the quantity with the fewest number of sig figs used in the calculation.
What is precision? Measured by how far they are from the actual value and each other.
What is accuracy? Determined by evaluation how far it is from the actual value.
Law of Conservation of Mass? In a chemical reation matter is neither created or destroyed.
Law of Definite Proportions? All samples of as given compound, regardless of their source or how they were prepared, have the same proportions of their constituent elements.
Law of Multiple Proportions? When two elements (call then a and b) from two different compounds, the masses of B that combine with 1 gram of A can be expressed as a ratio of small whole numbers.
What is the tiny, dense center of an atom called? It has nearly the entire mass of the atom. It is postively charged. Nucleus.
Negatively charged. Very light. Resides in empty space around the nucleus. Electron.
Positively charged.Heavy. Resides in nucleus. Proton.
No charge. Heavy.Resides in nucleus. Neutron.
The atomic number tells how many____there are? Protons.
The mass number is the total number of..? Protons and Neutrons.
What is an isotope? Atoms of the same element, (by definition, they have the samenumber of protons) that have different number of neutrons.
When an atom loses electrons it becomes___? Positive.
When an atom gains electrons it becomes__? Negative.
What is an ion? An atom that has a charge.
What is a cation? A positive ion.
What is a anion? A negative ion.
Properties of a metal? Conduct heat & electricity, lose electrons to from cations.
Properties of a nonmetal? Not a good conductor, gain electrons to form anions.
Properties of a metalloid? Semi-conductor (@ specific temperatures), can from both anions and cations.
Columns in the periodic table can also be refered to as _____ or _____? Families or groups.
Rows in the periodic table can also be refered to as____? Periods.
Column 1 in the periodic table? Alkali metals-very reactive.
Column 2 in the periodic table? Alkaline earth metals-reactive
Column 7 in the periodic table? Halogens-reactive nonmetals
Column 8 in the periodic table? Noble gases-extremely unreactive
Atomic Mass? %I x MI + I2 x MI2
How to be to the number of atoms? # atoms= mol X Na
Molar mass? Mass in grams of 1 mol of an atom or compound.
What is a ionic bond? Electrons are transferred from one atom to another. Ususally a metal and nonmetal.
What is a covalant bond? Electrons are shared between two atoms. Ex] H20. Between a nonmetal & nonmetal.
What is a Ionic compound? The result of an ionic bond. Between a metal and a nonmetal.
What is a polyatomic ion? Many ions.
Atomic number = the same # of ______. Protons
Mass # - atomic # = # of ______. Neutrons
Neutrons + electrons = _____ number. Mass.
Created by: vpickens