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Assessment 1.2

Cellular Environment and Communication Betweens Cells

Cytosol entire amount of fluid or water in the body or total body water
Intracellular Fluid accounts for 2/3 of total body water, making up 40% of body weight
Extracellular Fluid divided into 2 interstitial fluid and plasma
interstitial fluid- fluid found in the tissues between the cells
plasma- fluid component of blood
Both intra and extra cellular fluids contain solutes but their concentration gradient is different this is because of the transport mechanisms across cell membranes
The concentration of solute in plasma and interstitial fluid are more identical; this is due to the fact that with the exception of proteins, solutes freely diffuse between plasma and interstitial fluid
Edema capillaries contain gaps or pores between the capillary endothelial cells
fenestrations- are the pores that allow water and solutes to flow freely out of the capillary
bruise- broke the capillaries allowing solutes into the interstitial fluid
Blood Brain Barrier- brain capillaries are the foundation of blood brain barriers capillaries in the brain are much different; do not have fenestrations(pores), which makes the capillaries less permeable to water and solutes; this results in significant barrier to movement of fluids and solutes into brain tissue
Communication Between Cells conduction of electrical potential(nerve, cardiac, and skeletal), release of a substance, combination of both
Secretion of Substance- endocrine,paracrine, and autocrine
endocrine- release chemicals called hormones into the BLOOD where they are carried to another location in the body
Panacrine- cells secrete substances that diffuse into the extracellular fluid and affect neighboring cells (synaposis)
Autocrine- cell secretes substances that affect ITSELF by BINDING to the cell surface receptors (immune cells)
Action Potentials electrical potential from cell to cell
important in nerve, skeletal muscle, and cardiac muscle
Action Potential in Nerve Cells -resting state- the cell has no action potential
due to the NA/P ATPase pump- the inside of the cell has fewer positive charges than the outside of the cell
Depolarization-nerve cell encounters an acion potential becomes depolarized (voltage-gated sodium channgels open allowing sodium to enter the cell), interior of the cell becomes more positive until it reaches if threshold potential,
once that happens all the voltage-gated sodium channels open allowing even more rapid influx of sodium REPOLARIZATION until it reaches (35-50mV) then the channels close then the potassium channels open allowing the potassium to rush out of the cell
leaves the cell making it more negative again HYPERPOLARIZATION-potassium channels are slower to respond to voltage changes, the potassium channels remain open longer than necessary to return to the resting potential, the resting potential is overshot as
the cell becomes slightly more negative than the resting potential
read thru packet for skeletal muscle cells and cardiac
Created by: lisagoette