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Assessment 1.2

Cell Composition and Processes

Vesicle MEMBRANOUS, fluid filled pouch in a plant or animal; Ex: nucleus or cell
Organelle a specialized cellular part that is analagous to an organ that must have a function; Ex: mitochondrion, lysosomes, or ribosome
Prokaryotes no nucleus
no membrane bound organelles
simple internal structure
Ex: E. coli, straphylococcus, streptococcus
Eukaryotes true nucleus
complex internal structure with cytoskeleton
numerous membrane bound organelles
Ex: saccharomyces (fungi), oryza sativa (rice), and Homo sapiens
Plasma Membrane regulates passing of material through the cell
Cytosol fluid within the cell that contains organelles and particles
Nucleus contains the cellular DNA, the location of replication and transcription
Chromatin- contents of nucleus (DNA,RNA, and protein)
Cytoskeleton microfilaments- contains protein actin, responsible for cell movement
microtubules- composed of protein tubules (polymers), scaffolding of the cell to provide shape and tracks for movement, creat spindle fibers for mitosis
Intermediate filaments- tensile strength- holds membrane together
Mitochondria extracts energy from nutrients to produce ATP, considered to be the POWERHOUSE of the cell, ATP production, have their own DNA,and replicates completely seperate from the cell; more surface area= more enzymes
Endoplasmic Reticulum carries out metabolic process, and packaging of materials to the golgi appartus
Rough ER- protein synthesis, ribosomes are responsible for protein synthesis
Smooth ER- lipid synthesis
Golgi Appartus 4 stacked thin flat vesicle layersUPS;take material delivered by the ER; modify, process, and repackage them to form lysosomes, secretoty vesicles and other cytoplasmic competents; cis face- vesicle coming in from GA, trans face- vesicles leaving the GA
Proteoglycan Synthesis- large saccharide polymers attached to proteins; synthesis of compounds needed to replenish cellular and organelle membranes
Lysosomes Digest pinocytotic and phagocytotic vesicles Autophagy Damage Repair and analysis of cell
Secretory Vesicles packaged by the GA, carries material that is released (secret) from cell via exocytosis to cell membrane; hormones, neurotransmitters, zymogens(inactive enzymes which are activated later)
Pinocytotic vessicle brings in macromolecules (small) that has gone through pinocytosis
Clarithin pulling the borders of the put up and over the macromolecule and the surrounding extracellular fluid only in Pinocytosis
Phagocytic Vescles brings in larger molecules
Endocytosis cell bring in nutrients and other substances by mechanisms other than diffusion or active transport
Pinocytosis- brings in macromolecules; macromolecule binds to specific receptor in the cell membrane in locations called caoted pits, immediately beneath coated pits it a latticework of a fibrous protein called clathrin, binding at the receptor
causes the whole coated pit to invaginate, the clathrin fibers contract; pulling the borders of the pit up and over the macromolecule and the surrounding extracellular fluid, finally the invaginated portion of membrane breaks away from the surface
Phagocytosis- same process as pinocytosis except uses larger particles and instead of clatharin it uses actin-myosin interaction within the cytoskeleton microfilaments
Exocytosis the cell releases compound from within a vesicle to the outside of the cell, vesicle membrane and cell membrane fuse together outside of the cell releasing the compound
Autophagy if there is damgage to an organelle it recycled
Microautophagy- direct ingestion of cellular components by the lysosome in a process similar to phagocytosis
Macroautophagy- a defective organelle will get a signal to creat a membrane around itself creating a AUTOPHAGOSOME; the autophagosome will then fuse with the lysosome and its contents will be digested by the hydrolases
Apoptosis programmed or signaled cell death without surrounding areas, with no inflammation and it is a clean cut area; intracellular
Necrosis abnormal cell death and causes damage to the surrounding cells; extracellular damage, cell bursts, and uncontained
Autolysis if the entire cell is damaged, it digested by this process, damage repair (intracellular)
Protein Synthesis occurs in the rough ER
Lipid Synthesis-degradation occurs in the smooth ER
glycolysis occurs in the cytosol
drug metabolism
proteoglycan sythesis occurs in the Golgi Appartus; sythesis of compounds needed to replenish cellular and organelle membranes; principle components of the matrices of bone and cartilage
endoplasmic matrix space within the ER is where it is filled with fluid, very different the cytosol
Why does the ER attached to the nucleus? RNA must get from nucleus to ER(rough)to make proteins
Hydrolases enzymes are used by the cell to digest various materials (lysosomes)
Proteasome responsible for the breakdown of proteins within the cell, tightly controlled and regulated
Ubiquitin-labels proteins, so proteases recognize and breakdown; not degraded but recycled
Apoptosis breakdown by CASPASES- large class of enzymes use to breakdown cytoskeletons, organelles tightly packed, DNA condenses, nucleus collapses, BLEBS- cell membrane shows irregular buds called blebs, cell breaks apart into several apoptotic vesicles
required for normal function, differentiation, and recycling within an organism: digitation of fetus hands/feet, sloughing of uterus lining during menstruation, proper formation of synaptic connections, destruction of virus infected cells
disruption of normal apoptotic processes can lead to several diseases inhibition- cancer, autoimmune diseases(lupus), inflammatory disease (asthma)
activation- AIDS, Neurodegenerative diseases (Parkinson's), Hematologic (aplastic anemia)
cellular sythesis and secreation of angiotensinogen from nucleus to exocytosis transcription of DNA-ER thru pores-protein synthesis-ER vesicle-GA (cis face)- secretory vesicle-exocytosis
Vesicles or Organelles CELL- V Nucleus- V & O ER- V & O Mitochondria- V & O GA- V & O Lysosomes- V & O Ribosomes- O Cytosol- neither
Created by: lisagoette