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# Chemistry chapters 1

kilo 1000 base units/a kilometer is 1000 meters
deci 1/10 of the base unit/a decimeter is 1/10 of a meter
centi 1/100 of the base unit/ a centimeter is 1/100 of a meter
milli 1/1000 of the base unit/a millimeter is 1/1000 of a meter
micro 1/1,000,000 of the base unit/a micrometer is 1/1000,000 of a meter
nano 1/1,000,000,000 of the base unit/a nanometer is 1/1,000,000,000 of a meter
kilometer rough description if you walk all the way around a large stadium, you've walked about a kilometer/measuring the distance between cities or the length of a marathon
meter rough description the distance from the floor to the countertop in a typical kitchen is around a meter/measuing the dimensions of a house or the length of a footrace
centimeter rough description the thickness of your little finger is roughly a centimeter/measuing the length of a hair or the length of a pencil
millimeter rough description a millimeter is about the thickness of a dime/measuring the width of a fingernail or the length of an ant
micrometer rough description a micrometer is less than the thickness of a human hair/measuring the width of a hair or the size of a bacterium
liter rough description a liter is roughly the same volume as a quart/sizes of large beverage containers, amounts of gasoline
deciliter rough description a deciliter is around a half of a cup/only used when expressing concentrations of substances in body fluids
milliliter rough description a milliliter is around a fifth of a teaspoon/sizes of small beverage containers, does of liquid medications
microliter rough description a microliter is roughly the size of a single grain of sand/primarily used in analytical laboratories
kilogram rough description a quart of water weighs about a kilogram/masses of people, kitchen appliances, and other sizable items
gram rough description a small paper clip weighs about a gram/food packaging, amounts of proteins, fats, etc. in food
milligram rough description a large grain of sand weighs around a milligram/amounts of most vitamins and minerals in food
microgram rough description the smallest droplet of water that you can see without a microscope weighs around a microgram/amounts of some trace nutrients in food, such as cobalt and vitamin B12
metric system the primary system of measurement in the world
base unit the unit from which all other units are derived
derived unit attaching a prefix to the name of a base unit ie. kilo, milli, micro
meniscus the curved surface of the liquid in a graduated cylinder. always read the bottom to get an accurate reading
mass a measurement of how strongly an object resists being moved/different from weight because it is not affected by gravity
precision a measurement is precise when repeating something many times always produces approximately the same number
accuracy the ability of a measuring tool to give us the correct answer
conversion factor is a fraction that shows how two different units are related to one another
boiling point of water in degrees F and degrees C 212 degrees F and 100 degrees C
normal body temperature in degrees F and degrees C 98.6 degrees F and 37 degrees C
room temperature in degrees F and degrees C 68-77 degrees F and 20-25 degrees C
freezing point in degrees F and degrees C 32 degrees F and 0 degrees C
compound unit unit A per Unit B= unit A/unit B ie. 1.25 per gallon
formula for density density=mass/volume
formula for specific gravity specific gravity of a substance=density of the substance/density of water(1g/ml)-same as density except no units
cell is the smallest structural unit that can grow and reproduce
matter all things that have mass (everything)
homogenous matter that has a consistent appearance throughout
heterogeneous matter that has areas of differing appearance
extensive properties properties of a specific sample of a substance ie. this amount of salt weighs 3.5 grams
intensive properties are all inclusive/not dependent on a specific sample ie. all salt is white
mixture matter that can have different proportions of its ingredients
pure substance matter that has only one possible composition ie. table salt
compound a pure substance that can be made from and broken down into other substances
element cannot be made from or broken down into anything else
explain why Mg does not normally form covalent bonds. a Mg atom only has two valence electrons, so it has six empty spaces that need to be filled. since it can only form bonds with two other atoms, there is no way for it to be able to fill all the spaces to form an octet.
which group 8A element does not have eight valence electrons? why is this element placed in the inert gas group? helium does not have 8 valence electrons. the reason it is placed in the 8A group is b/c helium's valence shell is filled just like the noble gases are/show similar chemical properties
which element in group 1A does not behave like any of other others? why is this? hydrogen, b/c it has one electron in its valence shell like a 1A element, but it can also hold one more electron like a 7A element/shows some similarities of both
mono- one (used only for the second element)
di- two
tri- three
tetra- four (tetra titties!)
penta- five (five incher)
hexa- six (i will place six hexas on you)
name of H20 water
name of NH3 ammonia
name of N20 nitrous oxide
NO nitric oxide
what does the number and letter above each group represent? ie 4A it represents the number of valence electrons
how do each of these groups of elements form ions? 1A-lose 1 electron 2A- lose two electrons 3A-lose three electrons 4A- usually doesnt form ions 5A-gain 3 electrons 6A- gain two electrons 7A-gain one electron
what is the normal ion charge for each group? 1A- +1 2A-+2 3A- +3 4A-no ion charge/covalent 5A- -3 6A- -2 7A- -1
what is the symbol and stable ions for chromium? Cr; Cr2+ and Cr3+
what is the symbol and stable ions for manganese? Mn; Mn2+ and Mn3+
what is the symbol and stable ions for iron? Fe; Fe2+ and Fe3+
what is the symbol and stable ions for cobalt? Co; Co2+ and Co3+
what is the symbol and stable ions for nickel? Ni; Ni2+
what is the symbol and stable ions for copper? Cu; Cu+ and Cu2+
what is the symbol and stable ions for zinc? Zn; Zn2+
name of nitrogen in compound nitride
name of oxygen in compound oxide
name of fluorine in compound fluoride
name of sulfur in compound sulfide
name of chlorine in compound chloride
name of bromine in compound bromide
name of iodine in compound iodide
name of NH4+ ammonium ion
name of OH- hydroxide ion
name of NO3- nitrate
name of CO3-2 carbonate
name of SO4-2 sulfate
name of PO4-3 phosphate
name of HCO3- hydrogen carbonate (or bicarbonate)
Created by: ldg13092