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# chem_ch1

### chem_test1

the process of studying natural phenomena, involving observations, forming laws. and theories, and testing of theories by experimentation scientific method
quantitative observation that has a number and a scale measurement
one or more assumptions put forth to explain the observed behavior of nature hypothesis
a set of assumptions put forth to explain some aspect of the observed behavior of matter theory
(theory) a set of assumptions put forth to explain the observed behavior of matter. The models of chemistry usually involve assumptions about the behavior of individual atoms or molecules. model
a statement that expresses generally observed behavior natural law
mass is neither created nor destroyed law of conservation of mass
international system of units based on the metric system and units derived from the metric system SI system
the quantity of matter in an object mass
the force exerted on an object by gravity weight
(in measurement) the characteristic that any measurement involves estimated and cannot be exactly reproduced uncertainty
the certain digits and the first uncertain digit of a measurement significant figure
the agreement of a particular value with the true value accuracy
the degree of agreement among several measurements of the same quantity; the reproducibility of a measurement precision
an error that has an equal probability of being high or low random error
an error that always occurs in the same direction systematic error
expresses a number N x 10^m, a convenient method for representing a very large or very small number and for easily indicating the number of significant figures exponential notation
an equivalence statement between units used for converting from 1 unit to another unit factor method
unit factor method dimensional analysis
a property of matter representing the mass per unit volume density
the material of the universe matter
the three different forms in which matter can exist; solid, liquid, and gas states (of matter)
having visibly indistinguishable parts homogeneous mixture
having visibly distinguishable parts heterogeneous mixture
a homogeneous mixture solution
a substance with constant composition pure substance
a change in the form of a substance, but not in its chemical composition; chemical bonds are not broken in a physical change physical change
a method for separating the components of a liquid mixture that depends on differences in the ease of vaporization of the components distillation
a method for separating the components of a mixture containing and a liquid filtration
the general name for a series of methods for separating mixtures by employing a system with a mobile phase and a stationary phase chromatography
employs a strip of porous paper, such, as filter paper, for the stationary phase paper chromatography
a substance with constant composition that can be broken down into elements by chemical processes compound
the change of substances through a reorganization of the atoms; a chemical reaction chemical change
a substance that cannot be decomposed into a simpler substances by chemical or physical means element
a sequence of observations made under controlled conditions experiment
information we gather using our senses, sight, taste, hearing, touch, smell observation
measurements quantitative
describes without using numbers qualitative
measurements always consist of 2 parts: a number and a scale
a place where experiments are conducted laboratory
a very useful way to solve problems scientific method
the first fundamental step of the scientific method making observations
the second fundamental step of the scientific method formulating hypothesis
the third fundamental step of the scientific method performing experiments to test the hypothesis (key to the scientific method)
a possible explanation for an observation hypothesis
is often called a model theory
is a set of tested hypothesizes that give an overall explanation of natural phenomenon theory
an attempt to explain why something happens theory
gives us a mental picture which explains natural phenomenon theory
a concise statement or equation that summarizes observed behavior scientific law
people who use the scientific method to solve problems are called scientists
try to better understand things even inf their discoveries cannot be put to immediate use pure scientists
work is called pure science pure scientists
put their scientific discoveries to work applied scientists (engineers)
their work is called applied science or technology applied scientists (engineers)
why must scientists continue to do experiments? to refine our theories and laws. sometimes theories and laws are thrown out when they are not consistent with new data
one of the main branches of science chemistry
the study of the structures, properties, composition, and changes of matter chemistry
has been around for thousands of years chemistry
shorthand method of writing very large and very small numbers scientific notations
something that can be measured quantity
a comparison between the quantity and a certain quantity called a unit of measurement measurement
scientists use this set of units SI
based on the metric system SI
easier to use than the English system of units SI
has 7 fundamental base units SI
kilogram kg length
second s time
Kelvin K temperature
Ampere A electric current
Mole mol amount of substances
SI unit for energy 1J = 1m^2kg/s^2
1 L = 1dm^3=1000cm^3=1000mL
mega M 10^6
kilo k 10^3
hecto h 10^2
deka Da 10^1
deci d 10^-1
centi c 10^-2
milli m 10^-3
micro upside down u 10^-6
nano n 10^-9
a measure of the quantity of matter (protons, neutrons, and electrons) in an object mass
the force of attraction between a given mass and the earth weight
uncertainty of a measurement is expressed by accuracy and precision
refers to how close a measurement is to the accepted or true value accuracy
refers to how close a series of measurements of the same thing are to each other precision
tells how reproducible the measurements are precision
means that a measurement has an equal probability of being high or low random error
occurs in the same direction each time systematic error
are the digits in a measurement that are known with certainty plus one that is uncertain (the digit furthest to the right is the uncertain or estimated digit) significant figures
method used to convert from 1 unit to another dimensional analysis/ unit factor method/ conversion factor method
are ratios having this form #unit/#unit conversion factors
they equal one conversion factors
are used to convert from 1 unit to another unit conversion factors
come from equalities that state a relationship between 2 units conversion factors
Freezing point of water = 0 C
boiling point of water = 100 C
used in chemistry experiments C
used in chemistry calculations K
freezing point of water = 273.15 K
boiling point of water = 373.15 K
used in engineering sciences F
freezing point of water = 32 F
boiling point of water = 212 F
is the mass of substance per unit volume of substance density
depends on temperature density
used to identify a substance density
d= ? m and v are given d=m/v
m=? d and v are given m=dv
v=? d and m are given v=m/d
used to determine the volume of objects having irregular shapes water displacement method
is anything that has mass and occupies space matter
is a measure of the amount of matter in an object mass
not affected by temperature or location mass
3 states of matter solid, liquid, gas
rigid; has a fixed volume and shape and is slightly compressible solid
has a fixed volume, but no fixed shape and is slightly compressible liquid
has no fixed volume or shape and is easily compressible gas
all matter can be classified into two groups substances and mixtures
is matter that has a constant composition substance
are substances which cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical or physical means elements
115 are known to exist elements
91 can be found in nature elements
substance that can be broken down into simpler substances by chemical processes compound
elements making them up are combined in a definite proportion by mass compound
have different chemical and physical properties than the elements that make them up compound
consists of 2 or more substances each of which retains its individual properties mixture
substances that are combined to form a mixture are called constituents or components
mixtures can be separated by physical means such as distillation, filtration, and chromatography
composition can vary mixture
a mixture of pure substances that has visibly indistinguishable parts homogeneous mixtures/ solutions
a mixture of pure substances that has visibly distinguishable parts heterogeneous mixture
a change in the form of a substance physical change
no new substance is formed physical change
a new substance is formed with different properties and a different formula (composition) chemical change
following words usually signify a chemical change burn, rot, rust, decomposed, ferment, explode, and corrode
Created by: md4