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Chem stone 2

Polyatomic Ions, Vocab for ch. 1-11, 20

Accuracy The closeness of a measurement to the true value of the quantity that is being measured
Anion An ion with a negative net charge
Cation An ion with a positive net charge
Chemical Formula An expression showing the chemical composition of a compound in terms f the symbols for the atoms of the elements involved
Chemical Properties Any property of a substance that cannot be without converting the substance into some other substance
Chemistry The science that studies the properties of substances and how substances react with one another
Compounds Substances composed of two or more elements chemically united in fixed proportions
Empirical Formula An expression using chemical symbols to show the types of elements in a substance and the simplest ratios of the different kinds of atoms
Energy The capacity to do work or produce change
Extensive Property A property that depends on how much matter is being considered
Hypothesis A tentative explaination for a set of observations
Intensive Property A property that does not depend on how much matter is being considered
Law A concise verbal or mathematical statement of a relationship between phenomena that is always the same under the same conditions
Law of Conservation of Energy The total quantity of energy in the universe is constant
Law of Conservation of Mass Matter can be neither created nor destroyed
Limiting Reagent The reactant used up first in a reaction
Matter Anything that occupies space and possesses mass
Mole The amount of substance that contains as many entities (atoms, molecules, or other particles) as there are exactly atoms in exactly 12 grams of the carbon-12 isotope
Molecular Formula An expression showing the exact number of atoms of each element in a molecule
Molecule An aggregate of at least two atoms helt together by special forces
I - Iodide
Fl - Fluoride
Br - Bromide
MoO4 2- Molybdate
MnO4 - Permangante
WO4 - Tungstate
Se 2- Selenide
ClO4 - Perchlorate
ClO3 - Chlorate
ClO2 - Chlorite
ClO - Hypochlorite
Cl - Chloride
CrO4 2- Chromate
Cr2O7 2- Dichrimate
CO3 2- Carbonate
HCO3 - Bicarbonate
C2H3O2 - Acetate
C2O4 2- Oxalate
CN - Cyanide
SCN - Thiocynate
O2 2- Peroxide
O 2- Oxide
OH - Hydroxide
H - Hydride
NO2 - Nitrite
NO3 - Nitrate
N 3- Nitride
NH2 - Amide
PO4 3- Phosphate
HPO4 2- Hydrogen Phosphate
H2PO4 - Dihydrogen Phosphate
HSO3 - Bisulfite
SO4 2- Sulfate
SO3 2- Sulfite
S2O3 2- Thiosulfate
S4O6 2- Tetrathionate
S 2- Sulfide
HSO4 - Bisulfate
Area of High Electron Density Area of an atom or ion at which either a lone pair, single, double, or triple bond is located.
Atomic Mass The mass of an atom in atomic mass units.
Atomic Number (Z) The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
Atomic Radius One-half the distance between the nuclei in two adjacent atoms of the same element in a metal. For elements that exist as diatomic units (e.g. oxygen), the atomic radius is one-half the distance between the nuclei of two atoms in a particular molecule.
Aufbau Principle As protons are added one by one to the nucleus to build up the elements, electrons similarly are added to the atomic orbitals.
Coordinate Covalent Bond A bond in which the pair of electrons is supplied by one of the two bonded atoms.
Covalent Bond A bond in which two electrons are shared by two atoms.
Covalent Compounds Compounds containing only covalent bonds.
Dipole-dipole Forces Forces that act between polar molecules.
Dipole Moment The product of charge and distance between the charges in a molecule.
Electron Affinity The negative of the energy change that takes place when an electron is accepted by an atom (or an ion) in the gaseous state.
Electronegativity The ability of an atom to attract electrons toward itself in a chemical bond.
Formal Charge The electrical charge difference between the number of valence electrons in an isolated atom and the number of electrons assigned to that atom in a Lewis structure.
Hund's Rule The most stable arrangement of electrons in atomic subshells is the one with the greatest number of parallel spins.
Hybrid Orbitals Atomic orbitals obtained when two or more nonequivalent orbitals of the same atom combine before covalent bond formation.
Aldehydes Compounds with a carbonyl functional group and the general formula RCH0,in which R is an H atom, an alkyl, or an aromatic hydrocarbon group.
Alcohol An organic compound containing the hydroxyl group (- OH)
Alkanes Hydrocarbons having the general formula CnH2n+2, in which n=1, 2...
Alkenes Hydrocarbons containing one or more carbon-carbon double bonds. They hace the general formula CnH2n, in which n=2, 3,...
Alkynes Hydrocarbons that contain one or more carbon-carbon triple bands. They have the general formula CnH2n-2, in whcih n=2, 3,...
Amines Organic bases that have the functional group (-NR2), in which R may be H, an alkyl group, or an aromatic hydrocarbon group.
Aromatic hydrocarbon A hydrocarbon that contains one or more benzene rings.
Bronsted base A substance capable of accepting a proton in a reaction.
Carboxylic acids Acids that contain the carboxyl group (-COOH).
Chelating agent A substance that forms complex ions with metal ions in solution.
Chiral Compounds or ions that are not superimposable with their mirror images.
Combination reaction A reaction in which two or more substances combine to form a single product.
Concentration of a solution The amount of solute present in a given quantity of solution.
Coordination number In coordination compounds, it is defined as the number of donor atoms surrounding the central metal atom in a complex.
Decomposition reaction The breakdown of a compound into two or more components.
Displacement reaction A reaction in which an atom or an ion in a compound is replaced by an atom of another element.
Donor atom The atom of a ligand that is bonded directly to the metal atom.
Electrolyte A substance that, when dissolved in water, results in a solution that can conduct electricity.
End point Occurs in a titration when the indicator changes color.
Enantiomers Compounds and their nonsuperimposable mirror images.
Equivalenve point The point at which an acid is completely reacted with or neutralized by a base.
Esters Compounds that have the ceneral formula RCOOR', in which R can be H or an alkyl group or an aromatic hydrocarbon and R' is an alkyl group or an aromatic hydrocarbon.
Ether An organic compound containint the R-O-R' linkage, in which R and R' are alkyl and/or aromatic hydrocarbons.
Geometric isomers Compounds with the same type and number of atoms and the same chemical bonds but different spatial arrangements; such isomers cannot be interconverted without breaking a chemical bond.
Hydrocarbons Compounds made up of only carbon and hydrogen.
Ionic equation An equation that shows dissolved ionic compounds in terms of their free ions.
Ketones Compounds with a carbonyl functional group and the general formula RR'CO, in which R and R' are alkyl and/or aromati c hydrocarbon groups.
Lewis acid A substance that can accept a pair of electrons.
Lewis base A substance that can donate a pair of electrons.
Ligand A molecule or an ion that is bonded to the metal ion in a complex ion.
Metathesis reaction A reaction that involves the exchange or parts between compounds.
Molarity The number of moles of solute in one liter of solution.
Molecular equations Equations in which the formulas of the compounds are written as though all species existed as molecules or whole units.
Net ionic equation An equation that includes only the ionic species that actually take part in the reaction.
Spectator ions Ions that are not involved in the overall reaction.
Nonelectrolytes A substance that, when dissolved in water, gives a solution that is not electrically conducting.
Oxidation number The number of charges an atom would have in a molecule if electrons were transferred completely in the direction indicated by the difference in electronegativity.
pH The negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration in a aqueous solution.
Polymer A molecular compound distinguished by a high molar mass and made up of many repeating units.
Racemic mixture An equimolar mixture of two enantioners.
Redox reaction A reaction in which there is either a transfer of electrons or a change in the oxidation numbers of the substances taking part in the reaction.
Resonance The use of two or more Lewis structures to represent a particular molecule.
Saturated hydrocarbon Hydrocarbons that contain only single covalent bonds.
Solute The substance present in the smaller amount in a solution.
Solvent The substance present in larger amount in a solution.
Structural isomers Molecules that have the same molecular formula but different structures.
Titration The gradual addition of a solution of accurately known concentration to another solution of unknown concentration until the chemical reaction between the two solutions is complete.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons A solution that contains less solute than it has the capacity to dissolve.
Heat The thermal energy that can be transferred from an object at one temperature to an object at another temperature.
Energy The capacity to do work or cause change.
Internal energy The sum pf potential and kinetic energy of a system; the internal energy of a chemical system depends on 1) the number of particles, 2) the type of particles, and 3) the temperature.
Kinetic energy Energy due to the motion of an object.
Potential energy Energy stored in an object because of the relative positions or orientations of its components.
Endothermic Any reaction or process that results in an addition of heat to the system; indicated by +q.
Exothermic Any reaction or process that results in a loss of heat from the system; indicated by -q.
Thermodynamics the science of heat (energy) transfer.
Thermal equilibrium The system and the surroundings are equal in temperature; heat transfer occurs until thermal equilibrium is established.
System The object under study; generally the reactants.
Surroundings Everything outside the system.
Law of Conservation of Energy Energy is conserved. q surroundings = -q system
Heat capacity (C) The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a given quantity of substance by one degree Celcius.
Specific heat capacity calculated as [heat lost of gained by substance, J] / [mass, g] x [T change, K]
First law of thermodynamics The change in energy is equal to the heat transferred plus the work done by the system.
Melting The phase change from a solid to a liquid.
Freezing The phase change from a liquid to a solid.
Deposition The process in which vapor molecules are converted directly to the solid phase.
Sublimation The process in which molecules go directly from the solid phase into the vapor phase.
Evaporation The phase change from a liquid to a gas.
Condensation The phase change from a gas to a liquid.
State function The properties of a system that depend only on the state of the system.
Standard state temperature 298.15 K
Standard state pressure 1.0000 atm
Standard states matter Any solid is a pure solid; any liquid is a pure liquid; and gas is at 1.00 atm of pressure.
Enthalpy A thermodynamic quantity used to describe heat changes taking place at constant pressure.
Hess's law When reactants are converted to products, the change in enthalpy is the same whether the reaction takes place in one step or in a series of steps.
Thermochemical equation An equation that shows both the mass and enthalpy relations.
Enthalpy of formation The enthalpy for the reaction in which one mole of a substance is formed from its constituent elements.
Created by: jesters