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Chemistry Ch.6

Basic Chemistry

QuestionAnswer
What is Chemistry? The science that deals w/ the composition,structure & properties of matter & w/ how matter changes under different conditions.There's 2 branches of chemistry-organic & inorganic.
Organic chemistry The study of substances that contain CARBON.All living things like animals or plants contains carbon.Organic usually means "natural".It also means something that's ever been alive.Organic compounds WILL burn.
Inorganic chemistry The branch of chemistry,dealing w/ compounds that DO NOT CONTAIN carbon.Inorganic substances are not & never were alive.Metals,minerals,pure water & clean air are examples.Inorganic substances WON'T burn.
Matter Any substance that occupies space has mass (weight).
Energy Doesn't occupy space or have physical properties,such as mass(weight).
Element The simplest form of matter & cannot be broken down into a simpler substance w/o loss of identity.There are 90 elements(Periodic Table)
Atoms The structural units that make up elements.Atoms are particles from which all matter is composed.An atom is the smallest particle of an element that still retains the properties of that element.Atoms consist smaller particles; neurons,protons.
Molecules A molecule is formed by joining 2 or more atoms chemically.There are, 2 types of molecules.
Elemental molecules That contain 2 or more atoms of the same element that are united chemically.
Protons Have a positive electrical charge.The number of protons in an atom equals the number of electrons
Neutrons Have a neutral charge
Electrons Have a negative charge
Compound Molecules Also called compounds,are chemical combinations or 2 or more atoms of different elements that are united chemically.
Solids Have a definite size (volume) & a definite shape.Ice is an example of a solid.Ice has a definite size & shape.Ice is solid water(H20) @ a temp. of less than 32, F/0,C.
Liquids Have a definite size (volume)but NOT a definite shape.Liquids take shape of the container they're in.Water is an example of a liquid.
Gases Do not have definite size or shape.Steam is an example of gas.Steam doesn't have a definite size or shape..Steam is a gaseous water @ a temp. above 212 F/100 C.
Physical Properties Are those characteristics that can be determined w/o a chemical reaction & that DO NOT cause a chemical change in the identity of the substance.Phys. prop's incl. color,odor,weight,density,melting point,boiling point & hardness.
Chemical Properties Are those characteristics that CAN be determined w/ a chemical reaction that can cause a chemical change in the identity of the substance.Examples are:Rusting iron & burning wood.The iron ischanged to rust & burning wood is chemically changed to ash.
Physical change A change in form or physical properties of a substance w/o the formation of a new substance.Solid ice undergoes a physical change when it melts into a liquid.
Chemical change A change in the chemical composition of substance,in which a new substance or substances are formed having properties different from the original.
Chemical compounds Are a combination of 2 or more atoms of different elements united chemically w/ a fixed chemical composition,definite proportions & distinct properties.
Hydrogen (H) A colorless,odorless,tasteless gas & is the LIGHTEST ELEMENT KNOWN.
Oxygen (O) The MOST ABUNDANT ELEMENT FOUND ON EARTH.It's a colorless,odorless,tasteless gas.It comprises half of the earth's crust.
Nitrogen (N) A colorless,gaseous element.It makes up fourth-fifths of the air in our atmosphere & is found chiefly in the form of ammonia & nitrates. Air is a gaseous mixture that makes up the earth's atmosphere.
Water (H20) The most abundant element of ALL SUBSTANCES.
Hydrogen Peroxide (H2,02) A chemical compound of hydrogen & oxygen.It's a colorless liquid w/ a characteristic odor & a slightly acid taste.
pH (Potential Hydrogen) Of a substance,it's relative degree of acidity or alkalinity & is measured on a scale of 0-14.
Acids Are a substance that have a pH BELOW 7.0,tastes sour & turns litmus paper from blue to red.The lower the pH number,the greater degree of acidity.
Alkalies (Bases) Have a pH ABOVE 7.0,taste bitter & turns litmus paper from red to blue.The higher the pH number,the greater the degree of alkalinity. The natural pH of skin is 5.5.So although a pH of 7 is neutral for water,a pH of 5.5 is considered neutral for the skin.
Acid-Alkali neutralization reactions Occur when an acid is mixed w/ an alkali,in equal proportions to neutralize e/o & form water (H20) & salt.
Oxidation-reduction(redox)reactions One of the most common types of chemical reactions & are prevalent in all areas of chemistry
Oxidation Chemically changes the iron into iron oxide.When oxygen is removed from a substance,the substance is reduced.Oxidation cannot happen w/o reduction.Because oxidation & reduction always happen @ the same time,they're also called redox reactions.
Reduction taking something away
Combustion The rapid oxidation of a substance,accompanied by the production of heat & light.
Antioxidants prevent oxidation by neutralizing free radicals.One free radical can oxidize millions of other substances.Antioxidants are free radical scavengers that stop the oxidation reaction from continuing.
Chemical compounds Are a combination of 2 or more atoms of different elements united chemically w/ a fixed chemical composition,definite proportions & distinct properties.
Hydrogen (H) A colorless,odorless,tasteless gas & is the LIGHTEST ELEMENT KNOWN.
Oxygen (O) The MOST ABUNDANT ELEMENT FOUND ON EARTH.It's a colorless,odorless,tasteless gas.It comprises half of the earth's crust.
Nitrogen (N) A colorless,gaseous element.It makes up fourth-fifths of the air in our atmosphere & is found chiefly in the form of ammonia & nitrates. Air is a gaseous mixture that makes up the earth's atmosphere.
Water (H20) The most abundant element of ALL SUBSTANCES.
Hydrogen Peroxide (H2,02) A chemical compound of hydrogen & oxygen.It's a colorless liquid w/ a characteristic odor & a slightly acid taste.
pH (Potential Hydrogen) Of a substance,it's relative degree of acidity or alkalinity & is measured on a scale of 0-14.
Acids Are a substance that have a pH BELOW 7.0,tastes sour & turns litmus paper from blue to red.The lower the pH number,the greater degree of acidity.
Alkalies (Bases) Have a pH ABOVE 7.0,taste bitter & turns litmus paper from red to blue.The higher the pH number,the greater the degree of alkalinity. The natural pH of skin is 5.5.So although a pH of 7 is neutral for water,a pH of 5.5 is considered neutral for the skin.
Acid-Alkali neutralization reactions Occur when an acid is mixed w/ an alkali,in equal proportions to neutralize e/o & form water (H20) & salt.
Oxidation-reduction(redox)reactions One of the most common types of chemical reactions & are prevalent in all areas of chemistry
Oxidation Chemically changes the iron into iron oxide.When oxygen is removed from a substance,the substance is reduced.Oxidation cannot happen w/o reduction.Because oxidation & reduction always happen @ the same time,they're also called redox reactions.
Reduction taking something away
Combustion The rapid oxidation of a substance,accompanied by the production of heat & light.
Antioxidants prevent oxidation by neutralizing free radicals.One free radical can oxidize millions of other substances.Antioxidants are free radical scavengers that stop the oxidation reaction from continuing.
Solutions,Suspensions & Emulsions Are ALL physical mixtures of 2 or more different substances.
Solutions Are uniform mixtures of 2 or more mutually mixable substances.A solute is ANY substance that is dissolved by a solvent to form a solution.A solvent is any substance that dissolves the solute to form a solution.
Miscible (mixable) Liquids are mutually soluble.Water & alcohol are examples of miscible liquids.
Immiscible (not mixable) Liquids are not mutually soluble.Water & oil are immiscible liquids.
Suspensions Are uniform mixtures of 2 or more substances.Suspensions have a tendency to seperate over time.Aerosol hair spray,salad dressing & paint are suspensions.
Emulsions Are suspensions(mixtures)of an unstable mixture of 2 or more immiscible substances united w/ the aid of an emulsifier.The term emulsify means "to form an emulsion".
Surfactant Are used to emulsify oil & water to create an emulsion.The word surfactant is an acronym for Surface Active Agent.Surfactants are able to wet the skin & disperse oil in water.
Hydrophilic Water loving.
Lipophillic Oil loving
Oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion are droplets of oil dispersed in water.Mayonnaise,skin cleansers,moisturizers & body washes are examples of O/W emulsions.O/W emulsions contain a small amount of oil & a greater amount of water.The water is the external phase while oil is internal phase.
Water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion are droplets of water dispersed in oil.They're heavier greasier & more water resistant than O/W b/c the oil is in the external phase.Cleansing creams,cold creams,massage creams,baby creams & hair-grooming creams are W/O.
Created by: CLGagnon