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Skin Care Prod. Ch12

Skin Care Products:Chemistry,ingredients & selection

How can chemistry ingredients be studied? They can be studied at a molecular level
Emollients Fatty materials used to lubricate & moisturize the skin.They can act as either vehicles or performace ingredients
TEWL transepidermal waterloss
Water makes a large part of the body & it's used most frequently in cosmetic ingredients
Free radicals Aggressive,unstable,oxygen-containing molecules.They have lost an electron & need to steal other electrons from other molecules,thereby damaging the cells they steal from.
Aromatherapy (1) The oils are powerful and can irritate the skin or the senses if overused.Some people are allergic to certain fragrances & a relaxing facial could turn unpleasant if that oil is used.Study aromatherapy & the contraindications before using oil on clients.
Freshners have the lowest alcohol content.Aka skin skin refreshning lotions.They're beneficial for dry & mature skin as well as sensitive skin.
Clay masks draw impurities to the surface of the skin as the mask dries & tightens.Leave on for 10 mins.The masks contain clay,kaolin,bentonite or silica for tightening & sebum-absorbing effects
Non-setting masks Aka cream masks or gel masks.They have excellent hydrating properties.Cream masks don't dry the skin,& are often used on dry skin..They often contain oils & emollients as well as humectants,they have a strong moisturizing effect.
Serums Concentrated ingredients that target specific skin conditions
Ampoules Small,sealed vials containing a single application of highly concentrated extracts in a water or oil base
Modelage Masks Aka thermal masks contain special crystals of gypsum,a plaster like ingredient.The temp. reaches at 105 degrees, left on the skin.The mask then cools.The setting for the mask is aprox. 20 mins
Food & Drug Administration(FDA) Views cosmetics according to the Cosmetic Act of 1938, which distinguishes btw drugs & cosmetics.
Cosmetics Cosmetics are defined by the FDA as "articles that are intended to be rubbed,poured,sprinkled or otherwise app. to the human body or any part thereof for cleansing,beautifying,promoting attractiveness or altering the appearance.
Cosmeceuticals Products intended to improve the skin's health & appearance.
Performance ingredients Causes the actual changes in the appearance of the skin.
Functional ingredients Makes up the majority of the product.They allow the products to spread,give them body & texture & give them a specific form such as lotion,cream or gel.
Mineral oil & petrolatum Comes from the earth, specifically from petroleum sources.Both EMOLLIENTS are time tested,offer excellent protection against dehydration & help prevent irritant skin contact(ie: vaseline).
Fatty Alcohols Are fatty acids that have been exposed to hydrogen.
Fatty Acids Are lubricant ingredients derive from plant oils or animal fats.Fatty acids are more like oils.Common fatty acids that you will see are oleic acid,steric acid & caprylic acid.
Fatty Esters Are produced from fatty acids && fatty alcohols.Esters are easily recognized on labels because they almost ALWAYS END IN -ATE( such as octyl palmitate).They feel better than natural oils & lubricate more evenly.
Silicones A group of oils that are chemically combined w/ silicon & oxygen & leave noncomedogenic protective film on the surface of the skin.They also act as vehicles in some products,excellent PROTECTANTS.They end in-ICONE.
Comedogenicity The tendency of any topical substance to cause or worsen a buildup of dead cells in the follicle,leading to the development of a comedo(blackhead).
Surfactants One of the biggest categories of cosmetic ingredients are surfactants.They reduce the surface tension between the skin & the product & increase the SPREADABILITY of cosmetic products.
Detergents Are used primarily in cleansing products.They reduce the surface tension of dirt & oil on skin's surface & form an emulsion to lift them frm the skin.They also cause cleansers to foam.They're: sodium lauryl sulfATE & sodium laureth sulfATE.
Cleansers Are soaps and/or detergents that clean the skin.Soaps my be combined w/ detergents to make cleansers.
Emulsifiers Another category of surfactants..They're surfactants that cause oil & water to mix & form an emulsion.W/o emulsifiers oil & water can't mix & separate into layers.
Oil Soluble They're mixed into the oil phase of the product during manufacturing.
Water Soluble They're substances mixed w/ water.Aka water soluble.And mare mixed in the water phase
Gellants & Carbomers Gellants are agents that's used to give a product a GEL-LIKE CONSISTENCY.One example is carbomers. Carbomers are used to thicken creams & frequently used in gel products.
Fragrances Come from plant,animal or synthetic sources,but plant oils are very popular.These perfumes give products their scent.Essential oils are often used as natural fragrances.
Aromatherapy(2) A theraputic use of plant aromas & essential oils.Essential oils are highly concentrated plant oils w/ properties that can have various effects on skin.They cam be used to relax,stimulate or balance the psyche.They're used w/treatment & skin care products
Preservatives An important functional ingredient in skin care & cosmetic products.They prevent bacteria & other microorganisms frm living in a product.Ex: of preservatives in skin care products are chelating agents.W/o preservatives products can easily be contaminated.
Chelating agent(1) A chemical added to cosmetics to improve the efficiency of a preservative.Chelating agents work by breaking down cell walls of bacteria & other miccroorganisms.They usually end in EDTA.EDTA is an acronym for Ethylene Diaminetetraacetic Acid.Th
Chelating agent (2) They usually end at the bottom of the list b/c they're used in small quantities. Parabens,quaternium 15 & urea. Those are all preservatives
Certified colors Synthetic,inorganic & aka metal salts.These colorants that have batch certified & approved by the FDA.
Non-Certified colors Are organic,meaning that they come from animal or plant extracts & can also be natural mineral pigments.Less irritating than certified colors.They're listed on D&C aka drug cosmetic or FD&C aka food,drug &cosmetic.
Lakes Insoluble pigments made by combining dye w/ an inorganic material & are commonly used in colorful cosmetics.
pH adjustors Substances called pH adjustors are acids or alkalis( bases) used to adjust the pH of products.Buffering agents prevent changes in pH.Sodium hydroxide & citric acid are often pH adjustors.
Solvents These substances such as water or alcohol,that dissolve other ingredients.( Toulene is a solvent & is a deadly chemical used in nail polish).
Botanicals Ingredients derived from plants.Ingredients used in phytotherapy are derived from plants.
Healing agents The substances such as chamomile,licorice,azulene & aloe that heal the skin.
Hydrators(1) Aka Humectants. Are ingredients that attract water to the skin's surface.They can lock in h20,improving dehydration.Many humectants are available, incl. hyaluronic acid & propylene glycol.
Moisturizers Are combinations of emollients & humectants.Thousands of possible combinations exsist.Creams usually have MORE emollients than lotions or fluids.
Lipids Used to improve hydration,plumpness & smoothness of the skin.
Exfoliation Removal of dead corneum cells.
Enzymes Such as papin,bromelain & pancretin are also used as exfoliating products.
Delivery Systems Are chemical systems that deliver ingredients to specific tissues of the epidermis.Vehicles,liposomes & polymers are all types of delivery systems.
Vehicles Are spreading agents & carrying bases necessary to the formulation of a cosmetic.Water & emollients are both vehicles.Vehicles carry or deliver other ingredients into the skin to make them more effective.
Lipsomes(1) Closed lipid-bilayer spheres that encapsulate ingredients,targets delivery systems to specific tissues to the skin & control their release.The bilayer structure of liposomes mimics cell membranes & is compatible w/ cells.
Lipsomes(2) In contrast to standard micelle emulsions,which disrupt & damage cell membranes
Polymers Are chemical compounds formed by a number of small molecules.Polymers are also used in delivery systems.They're used as adv. vehicles that releases substances onto the skins surface @ a microscopically controlled rate.Aka microsponges
Antioxidants Neutralize free radicals before they can attach themselves to a cell membrane & destroy the cell.They're also added to cosmetic formulations to prevent oxidation that causes products to spoil. Vit's C & E,green tea & DMAE are antioxidants.
Polyglucans Help strengthen the immune system & stimulates metabolism.They're derived from yeast cells & have a naturally affinity for the skin.Polyglucans help preserve & protect collagen.
Beta-Glucans Beta-glucans,helps reduce fine lines & wrinkles by stimulating the formation of collagen
Tissue Respiratory Factor (TRF) Also derived from yeast cells.TRF functions as an inflammatory & moisturizing ingredient.
Glycoproteins Aka glycopolypeptides.Another yeast cell derivative that enhances celluar metabolism,which boosts oxygen uptake in the cell.They're beneficial to unhealthy skin, that's dull from smoking,diffused redness or has environmental damage.
Peptides Are chains of amino acids used in skin care products to produce changes in the skin's appearance.They've been shown to help aging skin by stimulating fibroblasts,the cells produce collagen(improves skin firmness & softens wrinkles).They're less irritating
Coenzyme Q10 Protects & revitalizes the skin.Often results in visible reduction of wrinkles & fine lines.It's a powerful antioxidant
Vitamin Kois Been used in products for blood coagulation.It's helpful for clients w/ telangietasias(cuperose skin) & spider veins.
Licorice Root is 50 to 100 times sweeter than sugar & contains sugar flavinoids (found in plants w/ yellow pigment),estrogens,amino acids & polysacchrides.It's an anti-inflammatory & natural replacement for hydrocortisone. IT HEALS.
Green Tea It's one of the best antioxidants available & provides effective lipid protection.Green tea is an anti-irritant,antibacterial & provides UV protection.
Mechanical Exfoliation A method of using physically rubbing of dead skin cells.Ex. of mech.Exfoliation are granular scrubs.Granular scrubs are usually used after cleansing from 1-2 times per week & is rinsed w/ h20.Needs to be avoided w/ ppl w/ sensitive,irritated skin.
Chemical Exfoliation Dead skin cells & the intercellular "glue" that holds them together(desmosomes),are faded by chemical agents like AHA's.AHA's penetrate into the skin & fade the intercellular glue.
Paraffin Masks Used to warm the skin & promote penetration of ingredients deeper into the skin through the heat trapped under the paraffin.It has a plumping & softening effect.
Hydrators(2) Moisturizer is a good term for clients even though technically there are differences in products.Hydrators are formulated w/ humectants that attract water in the skin
Message Creams designed to provide slip ( gliding ability) for message.
Self-Tanners They're formed w/ dihydroxyacetone(DHA),an ingredient that reacts w/ keratin on the surface cells on the skin & turns them darker.Looking tan DOES NOT mean the skin has protection from sunburns or photoaging.
Created by: CLGagnon



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