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Chem 2 ch 12

Chapter 12

What Is a Solution? A homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances.
What is a solute? the substance present in the smaller amout.
What is a solvent? Substance present in larger amount.
Exothermic to release heat.
Endothermic absorbs heat
Solubility the measure of how much solute will dissolve at a specific temperature.
saturated solution contains the maximum amount of solute that will dissolve in a given solution.
Unsaturated Solution contains less solute the the solvent had the capacity to dissolve at a specific temperature
supersaturated solution contains more solute than is present in a saturated solution at a specific temperature.
Crystallization the process in which dissolved solute comes out of the solution and forms crystals
miscible two liquids that are completely soluble in each other in all proportions
solvation the process in which an ion or a molecule is surrounded by solvent molecules arranged in a specific manner.
Hydration when water is the solvent
mole number of grams/ molar mass
like dissolves like two substances with similar intermolecular forces are likely to be soluble in each other.
concentration is the amount of solute present in a given quantity of solution
percent by mass mass of solute/mass of the solution x 100
mole fraction Xa= moles of a/ sum of all components
molarity moles of solute/Liters of solution
molality moles of solute/mass of the solvent (kg)
Henry's Law solubility of a gas in a liquid is proportional to the pressure of the gas over the solution c=kp
c the concentration of dissolved gas (mol/L)
P the pressure of gas over the solution (atm)
k is the constant for each gas (mol/L.atm) that depends only on the temperature
colligative properties properties that depend only on the number of solute particles in solution and not the nature of the solute particles
Vapor-Pressure Lowering P1=x1p°1
P1 vapor pressure of solvent over a solution
X1 mole fraction of the solvent
P°1 vapor pressure of pure solvent
ideal solution any solution that obeys Raoult's law
fractional distillation a procedure for separating liquid components of a solution based on their different boiling points
boiling-point elevation (delta Tb) the boiling point of the solution (Tb) minus the boiling point of the pure solvent (t0b) deltaTb=KbMi
Freezing-point depression the freezing point of pure solvent (Tfo) minus the freezing point of the solution (Tf) DeltaTf=Kfmi
osmotic pressure The pressure require to stop osmosis. pi=MRTi
Osmosis is the selective passage of solvent molecules through a porous membrane from a dilute solution to a more concentrated one
Semipermeable membrane allows the passage of solvent molecules but blocks the passage of solute molecules
M molarity of the solution
R the gas constant (0.0821L.atm/k.mol)
T is the temperature in K.
Van't Hoff factor actual number of particles in soln after dissociation/number of formula units initially dissolved in soln
colloid is a dispersion of particles of one substance throughout a dispersing medium of another substance
volatile have a measurable vapor pressure
nonvolatile no measurable vapor pressure
isotonic two solutions of equal concentration that have the same osmotic pressure
hypertonic the more concentrated solution
hypotonic the less concentrated soulution
crenation process that causes cells to shrink and eventually to cease functioning
ion pairs made up of one or more cations and one or more anions held together by electrostatic forces.
hydrophilic water loving
hydrophobic water-fearing
Tyndall Effect the scattering of the visible light by colloid particles
Roault's Law the vapor pressure of the solvent over a solution is given of the pure solvent and the mole fraction of the solvent in the solution.
Created by: majormayhem