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Chem Definitions

Definitions of vocabulary in CHEM 105

Reproducibility Ability to be produced again
Atomic Theory Detailed idea of how something works
Ion Charged atom or molecule
Cation Positive ion
Anion Negative ion
Precision Degree to which a measurement can be repeated to give the same result
Accuracy How close the measurement is to the true value
Most of atom's volume Electron cloud
Most of atom's mass Nucleus
Atomic Number Number of protons
Isotope Same element, different number of neutrons
Mass number - Atomic Number Number of neutrons
Atomic Weight Average mass of all the isotopes in nature (Carbon = 12.011 g)
Periodic Table The icon of chemistry
Cathode Ray Tube Experiment led to the . . . Discovery of the electron
Horizontal Rows of the Periodic Table Periods
Vertical Columns of the Periodic Table Groups
Heterogeneous Mixture Varies throughout the sample
Homogeneous Mixture Uniform throughout the sample
Physical Properties Observed without changing composition of substance. Color, odor, density, melting/boiling point
Chemical Properties Describe the way a substance may change or react to form other substances. Ex: flammability (burn in presence of oxygen)
Intensive Properties Do not depend on sample size. Temperature, density
Extensive Properties Depend on sample size. Mass, volume
Longest/Highest wavelength Lowest frequency and energy
Amplitude Height of a wave
Wavelength Distance between adjacent peaks
Limitations of the Bohr Model - Cannot explain spectra of other atoms - Makes assumptions about the electron
Continuous Spectrum Rainbow of colors with light of all wavelengths
Line Spectrum A spectrum containing radiation of only a specific wavelength
Uncertainty Principle Inherently impossible for us to know both the electron's exact momentum and location simultaneously
Wave-Particle Duality Light and other things can exhibit characteristics of both particles and waves
Schrodinger Equations - Only certain "wavefunction" would work - Wavefunction = solutions = orbitals - Orbitals are not orbits - Treated electron as a standing wave around the nucleus
n Principle quantum number
l Angular momentum quantum number. Tells the number of angular nodes.
m(l) Magnetic quantum number. Tells the orientation
n - 1 Total number of nodes
n - l - 1 Number of radial nodes
S-type Orbitals Spherical. 1 orientation, 2 electrons
P-type Orbitals Dumbbell-shaped. 3 orientations, 6 electrons
D-type Orbitals Teardrop shaped. 5 orientations, 10 electrons
F-type Orbitals 7 orientations, 14 electrons
Pauli Exclusion Principle - No two electrons can have the same set of four quantum numbers (n, l, m(l), m(s))
Electron Configuration The way in which the electrons are distributed among the various orbitals
Effective Nuclear Charge The net positive charge experienced by an electron in a many-electron atom; this charge is not the full nuclear charge because there is some shielding of the nucleus by the other electrons in the atom.
Valance Electrons Electrons with the in the highest principle quantum number
Core Electrons Any electrons that are not valance electrons
Ionization Energy The minimum energy required to remove an electron from the atom
Electron Affinity The energy change that occurs when an electron is added to a gaseous atom or ion. The attraction of the atom for the electron. Opposite of ionization energy
Metals - Exhibit shiny luster - Conduct heat and electricity - Malleable, ductile - Solid at room temp except Mg - Tend to have low ionization energies, form ions easily - Basicity
Nonmetals - Vary greatly in appearance - Poor conductors of heat and electricity - Tend to gain electrons when they react with metals - Mostly acidic
Metalloids - Properties intermediate between metals and nonmetals - Semi-conductors - Silicon looks like metal, but it is brittle, for ex.
Electron Spin Can have the value of 1/2 or -1/2 represented by an up arrow or a down arrow respectively
Created by: jaredririe